Lesson 9: Descriptive words and phrases-- Burmese Adjectives
How would you describe "Nibbana", the ultimate goal of the religious life under the traditional Theravada school of Buddhism? It is said to be beyond descriptions because words are inadequate to describe what is to be directly experienced. How would you tell a fish that lives in the water the beauty of the landscape in what is called "dry land"? How would you describe the color "green" to a visually-impaired person who has never seen the light of day in his life?
In the same way, finding an equivalent translation from English to Burmese and vice versa can be challenging sometimes, even for very simple expressions. For example, an English speaker will say, "What a beautiful day!" It is simple enough. In this sentence, "beautiful" is the descriptive term ( adjective) to the word "day" (noun). If I look up the sky today with open arms and verbalize my appreciation for the beauty of the mother nature with such an utterance in Burmese:
"au2... in2-ma1-tan2 hla1 deare1 nay1 ba2 la3", I wonder what will be the reaction of people around me. I have never tried saying that phrase before.
au2 -- Oh, (interjection)
in2-ma1-tan2 -- extremely (adverb)
hla1 -- beautiful (adjective)
deare1 -- such a (particle)
nay1 -- day (noun)
ba2 la3 -- "Oh, so, it is like that.."; ending words used to say out something loud with awe and amazement.
This sentence is perfectly acceptable and grammatically correct Burmese. If you are in the mood to be melodramatic, you can try saying that when you visit Myanmar. However, I have to warn you, this is an experimental phrase that I just came up with. I have never tested the reaction of the audience myself. But I truly think that it is a good original dramatic phrase that can be used in some Burmese movie, TV drama, or commercials.
Perhaps, Myanmar people are taking the good weather for granted, and don't bother to mention about it in an appreciative way. However, most Burmese will welcome the pleasantly cool nights and poetic misty mornings in early February compared to hot sweltering heat in mid afternoon of April.
It is interesting to note that the English expression "What a beautiful day!" has a Mandarin Chinese equivalent in Pinyin:
There is an exception, however. Burmese people living abroad who are used to harsh weather conditions like Canadian winter storms might say to each other:
de2-nay1 -- today (this + day)
ya2-thi2-u1-tu1 -- weather
thate -- very much (adverb)
koun3 -- good (adjective)
ta2 -- (particle that modifies adjective to the noun "koun3 ta2": something that is good)
beare3 -- a claim or confirmation ending words
de2-nay1 ya2-thi2-u1-tu1 thate koun3 da2 beare3 -- The weather is very nice today!
which is quite close to the Mandarin Chinese expression above.
Personally, I don't think it's a right approach to think of a phrase in your language and try to translate it into Burmese. It's better to go the other way: Learn common Burmese expressions, and figure out what they mean in your language. On the other hand, you still need the knowledge of basic nouns and adjectives to be used as foundations to build up those expressions. We will go through a list of some useful nouns and adjectives later in this lesson. But, first...
Adjectives in Myanmar Language
Let's review some grammar. In English, adjective is the word class that qualifies nouns. For example, in the sentence: "He is tall", the word "tall" is the adjective that describes the quality or expresses the attribute of the person (noun).
In Myanmar Language, a class of words known as na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 are used in the same way as English adjectives. The word has Pali roots na2-ma1 meaning "name", and wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 meaning "qualifier".
Four types of Burmese Adjectives
gome2-yay2-pya1 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 :
Words that describe the quality of the noun as to how something or someone is.
chan3-tha2 dthau3 lu2 [literary]
chan3-tha2 deare1 lu2 [colloquial] -- rich man (rich + who is/that is + man)
way3 dthau3 a-yut [literary]
way3 deare1 a-yut [colloquial] -- far away place (far + who is/that is + region)
In direct translation, it will be like: "man who is rich" and "region that is far". In the first example, the adjective clause chan3-tha2 deare1 describes what kind of a man (noun) the person is. In the second example, the adjective clause way3 deare1 describes what kind of place (noun) it is.
a-hnyoon3 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 :
Words that make reference to something or someone.
e2 lun3 [literary]
de2 lun3 [colloquial] -- this road (this + road)
a-cha3 ni3-lun3 [literary]
ta1-cha3 ni3-lun3 [colloquial] -- other methods (other + method).
Numbers | thin2-cha2 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 :
words that describe "how many" of something, "what position" in an ordered list, and
unspecified numbers are in this category. It is further classified into three types:
Quantitative | a-yay2-a-twet-pya1 thin2-cha2 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 :
words with numbers followed by measure words also known as numerical classifiers.
lu2 hseare2 yout -- 10 people (people + 10 + measure word)
To be qualified as an adjective clause, there must be a noun such as lu2 above. If hseare2 yout is used to substitute the noun lu2 without mentioning it, the word is considered a pronoun.
hseare2 yout la2 deare2 -- ten came. (10 + measure word + come + affirmative)
Ordinal Numbers | a-sin2-pya1 thin2-cha2 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 :
words that show position in the ordered list of numbers such as first, second, third.
hna1-hseare1-da1 jain2 myout mway3-nay1 -- 21st. birthday. (21 + measure word + particle to show number of times + birthday)
Here's the break-down word by word. Note how the above adjective and noun are formed by combining words. Also note slight change in pronunciation.
hna1-hseare1-tit -- 21 (noun)
kjain2 -- measure word (particle)
myout -- suffix word to show number of times (particle)
mway3 -- to be born (verb)
nay1 -- day (noun)
Unspecified Numbers | pa1-ma2-na1-pya1 thin2-cha2 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 :
words that are used as quantifiers but without numbers.
lu2 ta1-cho1 -- some people.
- Quantitative | a-yay2-a-twet-pya1 thin2-cha2 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 : words with numbers followed by measure words also known as numerical classifiers.
Question Words | a-may3 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 :
lu2 beare2-hna1-yout la2 leare3 -- How many people came? (people + how many + measure word + come)
yout (particle) is the measure word for number of people. It can be considered as part of the adjective clause as shown above.
To qualify as a question of adjective type, the question must have a noun, e.g., lu2 above. If the noun is omitted, beare2-hna1-yout will be considered as a question of pronoun type.
beare2-hna1-yout la2 leare3 -- how many came?
The same rule with the requirement of the noun in the sentence applies for other question words both in colloquial and literary forms:
- myi2 hmya1 - how many [literary]
- beare2 lo2 - how [colloquial]
- myi2 dthi1 - which [literary]
- beare2 lout - how much [colloquial]
- ba2 - what [colloquial]
Two types of Burmese Adjectives by Construction
- pin2-ko2 na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 - Original. E.g., myan2 - fast
- poun3-sut na2-ma1-wi1-thay2-tha1-na1 - Compound. E.g., thun1-shin3 - clean. It's not necessary to combine two adjectives. E.g., zweare3-koun3 - persevering.
Three levels of Burmese Adjectives
- tha2-mun2 a-hsin1 - Nomal. E.g., good.
- tha2-loon2 a-hsin1 - Comparative. E.g., better
- a-tha2-loon2-zone3 a-hsin1 - Superlative. E.g., best
Please refer to lesson 30 for a long list of adjectives in Comparative and Superlative forms.
Physical Descriptions for People
a-yut myin1 deare2 -- He/she is a tall person. (height of a person + tall + confirmation)
a-yut pu1 deare2 -- He/she is a short person. (height of a person + short + confirmation)
If you would like to stress that he/she is very tall or very short, say like this:
a-yut a-myin1-ji3 beare3 -- He/she is very tall. ( height of a person + height + to a high degree, level, or class + exactly)
Mandarin Chinese Equivalent in Pinyin:
a-yut pu1-pu1 lay3 beare3 -- [He/she implicitly implied] is very short. (height of a person + short + short + little + exactly)
shay2 means "long" to describe objects and creatures that grow lengthwise such as snakes.
mway2 a-shay2-ji3 beare3 ha1 -- I just saw a long snake! (snake + long to a high degree, level, or class + emphasis:"exactly" + exclamation)
It is not a correct Burmese to describe the height of a person as shay2, but you will hear some Myanmar people say that, anyway. However, you can use shay2 if the person has a long hair.
The word khut (adverb) is like the English word "somewhat", or "rather" which is less in degree than "very" and "extreme".
za1-bin2 khut shay2-shay2 beare3 -- His/her hair is a bit long. (hair + somewhat + long + long + exactly)
za1-bin2 a-shay2-ji3 beare3 -- He/she is someone with very long hair. (hair + long + to a high degree, level, or class + exactly)
za1-bin2 toh2-toh2-lay3 beare3 -- He/she is the one with very short hair. (hair + short + short + little + exactly)
You can drop "very" from the sentence, but you must use deare2 instead of beare3. The ending word beare3 is an emphasis word and has more stress to it, whereas deare2 is just a positive statement. (It is a postpositional marker that can form verb phrases comparable to "is" and "has" in English.)
za1-bin2 toh2 deare2 -- -- He/she has a short hair. (hair + short + affirmation)
a-tha3 meare3 deare2 -- He/she has a dark complexion. (skin + black + affirmation)
a-tha3 pfyu2 deare2 -- He/she has a light complexion. (skin + white + affirmation)
I used to regularly listen to online Audio Dharma talk by Gil Fronsdal, a Norwegian-born American ex-Buddhist monk who got married, got a kid, got a Stanford post-graduate degree and became a Buddhist teacher. I couldn't care less if his skin color was black or brown or yellow or painted himself green and red because he's open-minded, intelligent, and beautiful inside. In that aspect, I am a different breed from many Burmese people who have a general preference for fair skin. One reason is because those who must toil under the sun everyday -- farmers, laborers and general workers doing their hard day's work tend to have tanned skin and they don't accumulate as much wealth as office dwellers living in their comfort zone. There is an unwritten social stigma and prejudice against those with weathered, rugged, and sun-baked dark skin by the society at large, and this is reflected by the lyrics in this song: "My skin is a little dark and I am married also. But, I can still have some fun... [In a sense, let me give it a try]" (a-tha3 = skin) + (neare3-neare3 = a little) + (meare3 deare2 = have dark color)
My skin is a little dark
I used to regularly listen to online Audio Dharma talk by Gil Fronsdal, a Norwegian-born American ex-Buddhist monk who got married, got a kid, got a Stanford post-graduate degree and became a Buddhist teacher. I couldn't care less if his skin color was black or brown or yellow or painted himself green and red because he's open-minded, intelligent, and beautiful inside. In that aspect, I am a different breed from many Burmese people who have a general preference for fair skin. One reason is because those who must toil under the sun everyday -- farmers, laborers and general workers doing their hard day's work tend to have tanned skin and they don't accumulate as much wealth as office dwellers living in their comfort zone. There is an unwritten social stigma and prejudice against those with weathered, rugged, and sun-baked dark skin by the society at large, and this is reflected by the lyrics in this song: "My skin is a little dark and I am married also. But, I can still have some fun... [In a sense, let me give it a try]" (အသား | a-tha3 = skin) + (နည်းနည်း | neare3-neare3 = a little) + (မည်းတယ် | meare3 deare2 = have dark color) Helay | ဟဲလေး | heare3 lay3 [31 seconds]Posted by Naing Tinnyuntpu on Monday, June 6, 2016
wah1 deare2 -- He/she is a plump person. (fat + affirmation) Note that unlike the other Burmese expressions for the height, hair or the skin complexion as in "the height is tall", "the hair is short", "skin is dark" and so on, Burmese people don't say "body is fat". It is understood that wa1 refers to the body of the person in the conversation.
pain2 deare2 -- He/she is slim. (slim + affirmation)
Use the above sentences to describe a person in a situation when someone asks you what the person looks like. Note the omission of "he/she" as it is redundant and implicitly implied. However, if you are the one to start the conversation, it's better to include the pronoun "he/she", "that man" or "that woman" with different sentence construction:
thu2 thate wah1 da2 beare3 -- He/she is so fat! (he/she + very + fat + that is + affirmation)
de2 main3-ma1 thate pain2 da2 beare3 -- That woman is so slim! (this + woman + very + slim + that is + affirmation)
thu2 thate pain2 da2 beare3 nau2 -- Look at her! She's is so slim! (he/she + very + slim + that is + affirmation + statement of awe and wonder)
The speaker is saying the above sentence with nau2 ending to a close person in a clique as they are looking at someone. Please refer back to lesson 3 for the use of nau2 ending word.
hla1 lite da2 -- An exclamation: ["You are", "She is" or "It is" implicitly implied] is so lovely! (pretty, beautiful + so much!)
yoat-hso3 lite da2 -- An exclamation: ["He/she/it" implicitly implied] looks so ugly! (physical or facial features + bad + so much!) Myanmar people won't normally say in your face that you are so ugly. However, they are likely to say it behind your back.
Descriptions for psychological behaviors, manners, attitudes and personalities
de2 koun2-mah1-lay3 -- this + girl
a-yan3 -- extremely
tau2 -- bright; capable of doing an excellent job
da2 beare3 -- ending affirmation words (that is + affirmation)
de2 koun2-mah1-lay3 a-yan3 tau2 da2 beare3 -- That girl is extremely bright!
de2 koun2-lay3 -- this + boy
nyan1 -- lousy; sloppy
da2 beare3 -- ending affirmation words (that is + affirmation)
de2 koun2-lay3 thate nyan1 da2 beare3 -- That boy is so sloppy/lousy!
In English, "that boy" sounds more natural than "this boy". It's like you are talking about "that boy" from the distance. But, in Burmese, de2koun2-lay3 (this boy around here) is more natural than ho2 koun2-lay3 (that boy) from far away. That's why "this" in burmese is translated as "that" in English for the above phrases. Isn't that odd?
de2 lu2 -- that man (this + man)
tha1-bau3 -- attitude
a-yan3 -- extremely
koun3 -- good
da2 beare3 -- ending words used to express a heart-felt opinion.
ha1! -- exclamation!! This phrase will still work without this word, but it will sound more lively if you add it in.
de2 lu2 tha1-bau3 a-yan3 koun3 da2 beare3 ha1! -- That man is very kind!
Note that "attitude" (noun) + "good" (adjective) roughly means kind (adjective). In the above sentence, "extremely" (adverb) breaks up "kind" into two parts by inserting between "attitude" and "good". Yes, Myanmar people will not only speak bad about you behind your back; they will also praise you behind your back-- if you are really good, that is.
de2 main3-ma1 tha1-bau3 a-yan3 koun3 da2 beare3 -- That woman is so kind! (that + woman + attitude + extremely + good.)
de2 main3-ma1 -- that woman
sate -- psychological
tha1-bau3-hta3 -- tendency; attitude
ma1-koun3-bu3 -- not good = bad
de2 main3-ma1 sate-tha1-bau3-hta3 ma1-koun3-bu3 -- That woman has a bad attitude (to the degree of wicked and evil.)
koun3 deare2 -- positive statement roughly equivalent to "is good" is negated by the negative particle ma1 and negative ending bu3 with the adjective koun3 in between.
You can also use the phrase yoat-ma2 deare1 to describe the despicable person.
deare1 in the first tone refers to the woman (main3-ma1) who is despicable (yoat-ma2). It is a particle in Burmese grammar equivalent to the conjunction "that" in English grammar: The woman "that" is or "who" is despicable.
de2 lu2 -- that man
lu2 goun3 -- good man (man + good.) Note that "good" is usually pronounced koun3, but here, it's more natural to say goun3.
de2 lu2 lu2 goun3 ba2 -- He is a good man!
With that positive note, lesson 9 is ended. Describing things in color adjectives will be continued in lesson 10.