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Lesson 61: Burmese Grammar made easy — part 3 — Conjunctions

Myanmar Language Conjunctions known as သမ္ဗန္ဓ | thun2-bun2-da1 MP3 Audio File are words that connect other words or sentences. They are used to join similar items or meaning to show inclusiveness or continuity just like "and", "with", "moreover", etc. in English. They are also used to show contrasts such as "however", "but" and "nevertheless". Sometimes, they are used to express constraints and challenges like the English words "despite" and "in spite of". Conjunctions are also used to show "or else" choice, logical consequence such as "therefore", and "as a result", or to describe the desired end result such as "in order to" and "so that".

Unlike particles and postpositional markers that are challenging topics to explain to the non-native Burmese speakers, conjunctions are relatively simple and similar to English. Once you get used to the word order which is opposite from English in many cases, you will find those easy. Knowing the meaning of the phrases and sentences at ease (without thinking) will give confidence to construct new sentences on your own.

နားလည်အောင်ရှင်းပြမယ်။

na3-leare2 oun2 shin3-pya1 meare2 MP3 Audio File

[I will] explain [it] so that [you] understand.

နားလည် | na3-leare2 - understand

အောင် | oun2 - in order to/so that

ရှင်းပြ | shin3-pya1 - explain

မယ် | meare2 - will

The above spoken phrase shows the usage of conjunction အောင် | oun2 "so that" or "in order to". Also note that the word order is different from English and "You" and "I" are omitted.

နားလည် | na3-leare2 means to understand. It is a compound word made up of နား | na3 meaning "ear" and လည် | leare2 meaning to be shrewd or to be clever. In another words, to make the ears clever.

နားလည်အောင် | na3-leare2 oun2 - In order to make you understand

ရှင်းပြမယ် | shin3-pya1 meare2 - I will explain it.

As lessons progress, there will be more complex sentence constructions. The material presented here is checked against Myanmar language grammar text books published by the Ministry of Education for accuracy and correctness.

You will always see or hear literary form of conjunctions in formal speeches, announcements, news and in the written language. Understanding those words differentiate you from the illiterate in the Myanmar Language. The spoken form of conjunctions with the same meaning are shown as [colloquial].

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Definition of Conjunctions - သမ္ဗန္ဓ | thun2-bun2-da1

§ 13. Definition of conjunction by the Ministry of Education:

ပုဒ်အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊

poat a-chin3-jin3 go2 pfyit say2 - either words or (words + mutually or reciprocally + to + either...or)

ဝါကျအချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊

wet-kja1 a-chin3-jin3 go2 pfyit say2 - either sentence or (words + mutually or reciprocally + to + either...or)

အဓိပ္ပာယ် အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ

a-date-peare2 a-chin3-jin3 go2 pfyit say2 - either meaning or (meaning + mutually or reciprocally + to + either...or)

ဆက်စပ်ပေးသော

hset-sut pay3 dthau3 - that which connects (connect + verb suffix particle "give" + that which)

စကားလုံးကို

za1-ga1-lone3 go2 - to that word (word + postpositional marker "to")

သမ္ဗန္ဓဟုခေါ်သည်။

thun2-bun2-da1 hu1 khau2 dthi2

is known as conjunction. (conjunction + as + call + postpositional marker to make the verb "is called".)

ပုဒ်အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊ ဝါကျအချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊ အဓိပ္ပာယ် အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ ဆက်စပ်ပေးသော စကားလုံးကို သမ္ဗန္ဓဟုခေါ်သည်။

Words that connect either other words or sentence or meaning reciprocally are called conjunctions.

§ 13.1. In the above definition of conjunction, conjunction word ဖြစ်စေ | pfyit say2 - either ... or ... or is used three times to connect the words to form a sentence.

§ 14. Conjunctions are classified into 3 types by type of join and 11 types by meaning.

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ

hset-sut-pone2 a-ya1

by means of connection (connect + the way + according to)

သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးနှင့်

thun2-bun2-da1 thone3 myo3 hnin1

three types of conjunctions and (conjunctions + 3 + type + and)

အနက်အဓိပ္ပါယ်အရ

a-net a-date-peare1 a-ya1

by means of meaning in depth (depth + meaning + according to)

သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၁၁)မျိုးရှိသည်။

thun2-bun2-da1 hseare1-ta1-myo3 shi1 dthi2

eleven types of conjunctions do exist. (conjunction + eleven + type + exist/have + ending ppm)

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးနှင့် အနက်အဓိပ္ပါယ်အရ သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၁၁)မျိုးရှိသည်။

By means of connection, there are three types of conjunctions and by meaning, there are eleven types of conjunctions.

§ 14.1 In the above sentence, the conjunction နှင့် | hnin1 is the AND word which joins the words describing "three types" and "eleven types" of conjunctions to form a complete sentence.

The Three Types of Conjunctions

§ 14.2 The three types of conjunctions according to connections are as follows:

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ

hset-sut-pone2 a-ya1 -- by means of connection (connect + the way + according to)

သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးမှာ

thun2-bun2-da1 thone3 myo3 hma2 -- the tree types of conjunctions are (conjunctions + 3 + type + subject marker "are")

အောက်ပါအတိုင်းဖြစ်သည်။

out-pa2 a-tine3 fyit dthi2 -- (are in existence) as shown below: (shown below + ppm that shows compliance: "according to" + happen to be + ppm showing present state roughly "is/are/ to be")

The three types of conjunctions according to connections are as follows:

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးမှာ အောက်ပါအတိုင်းဖြစ်သည်။

§ 14.2.1 ပုဒ်ဆက်သမ္ဗန္ဓ | poat-hset thun2-bun2 da1 MP3 Audio File -- Conjunctions that connect words. Further analysis will show that they follow nouns and pronouns such as things, objects and people.

  • နှင့် | hnin1 -- with (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • နဲ့ | neare1 -- with (colloquial) MP3 Audio File
  • သို့မဟုတ် | dtho1-ma1-hote -- either or; or else (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • မဟုတ်ရင် | ma1-hote-yin2 -- either or
  • ဖြစ်စေ ... ဖြစ်စေ | pfyit say2 ... pfyit say2 -- either or
  • သော်လည်းကောင်း. ... သော်လည်းကောင်း | dthau2 la1-goun3 ... dthau2 la1-goun3 -- either or
  • မှတပါး | hma1 ta1 ba3 -- apart from
  • မှလွဲ၍ | hma1 lweare3 yway1 -- apart from
  • ကလွဲပြီး | gah1 lweare3 pyi3 -- apart from
  • ကလွဲလို့ | gah1 lweare3 lo1 -- apart from
  • ရော ... ရော | yau3 ... yau3 -- both .. and
  • ကော ... ကော | gau3 ... gau3 -- both .. and
  • လည်း | leare3 -- also (colloquial) MP3 Audio File
  • လည်းကောင်း | la1-goun3 -- as well (literary) MP3 Audio File

Examples

လူမိုက်နှင့်ငွေ အတူမနေ

lu2-mite hnin1 ngway2 a-tu2 ma1-nay2 MP3 Audio File

A fool and his money soon parted. (foolish person + with/and + money + together + not + stay) [proverb]

လူမိုက်နဲ့ မပေါင်းနဲ့

lu2-mite neare1 ma1-poun3 neare1 MP3 Audio File

Don't associate with a fool. (foolish person + with + not + befriend + negative imperative) [colloquial]

Note that there are two နဲ့ in the above sentence. The final ending word နဲ့ is not a conjunction, but a particle meaning "Don't". Similarly, the word နဲ့ in the sentence below is not a conjunction, but a postpositional marker showing utility, i.e., "using" something to do something.

ကားနဲ့သွား

ka3 neare1 thwa3 MP3 Audio File

Go with a car. (car + with/and + go) [colloquial suggestion]

လေယာဉ်လက်မှတ်ကို ​​ဒေါ်လာသို့မဟုတ် ကျပ်ဖြင့်ပေးနိုင်သည်။

lay2-yin2 let-hmut go2 dau2-la2 dhto1-ma1-hote kjut pfyin1 pay3 nine2 dthi2 MP3 Audio File

You can purchase air tickets by either Dollar or Kyat.

air ticket + ppm indicating object + dollar + either or + Kyat + using with + pay + can + ppm marking present state.

လေယာဉ်လက်မှတ်ကို ​ဒေါ်လာမဟုတ်ရင် ကျပ်နဲ့ပေးနိုင်တယ်။

lay2-yin2 let-hmut go2 dau2-la2 ma1-hote-yin2 kjut neare1 pay3 nine2 deare2 MP3 Audio File

You can buy air tickets by either Dollar or Kyat.

air ticket + ppm indicating object + dollar + either or + Kyat+ using with + pay + can be done + ppm marking present state. [colloquial]

နာမဝိသေသနကို နှစ်ကြိမ်ထပ်ခြင်းဖြင့် ဖြစ်စေ၊ ပစ္စည်းတစ်ခုခုဆက်ခြင်းဖြင့် ဖြစ်စေ၊ ကြိယာဝိသေသနဖြစ်အောင် ဖွဲ့စည်းနိုင်သည်။

na2-ma1 we1-thay2 tha1-na1 go2 hna1-kjain2 htut chin3 pfyin1 pfyit say2 pyit-si3 ta1-khu1-khu1 hset chin3 pfyin1 pfyit say2 ka1-ri1-ya2 we1-thay2-tha1-na1 pfyit oun2 pfweare1-zi3 nine2 dthi2

You can modify adjective into adverb by either doubling up the adjective word or by appending a particle.

adjective + to + 2 + times + stack up + [suffix "chin3" converts prior 3 words to noun] + with + either or + particle + an item + attach + [suffix "chin3" converts prior 3 words to noun] + with + either or + adverb + become a reality + in order to + construct + can be done + ending ppm.

ကျိုက်ထီးရိုးသို့ ကားဖြင့်သော်လည်းကောင်း ရထားဖြင့်သော်လည်းကောင်း သွားရောက်လည်ပတ်နိုင်သည်။

kjite-hti3-yo3 dtho1 ka3 pfyin1 dthau2 la1-goun3 ya1-hta3 pfyin1 dthau2 la1-goun3 thwa3-yout leare2-pup nine2 dthi2

You can visit Kyaikhtiyo (Golden Rock) by either with a car or by taking a train.

Kyaikhtiyo + to + car + with + either or + train + with + either or + go and visit + can be done + PPM ending for present tense.

ဤသားတစ်ယောက်မှတပါး အခြားအားကိုးစရာမရှိပေ။

e2 tha3 ta1-yout hma1 da1-ba3 a-cha3 ah3-ko3 za1-ya2 ma1-shi1 bay2

Apart from this son there is no one else to depend on.

this + son + 1 + person + apart from/except + other + something or someone to depend on + not + have + ending emphasis.

The conjunction မှလွဲ၍ | hma1 lweare3 yway1 may also be used in place of မှတပါး | hma1 da1-ba3 in the above sentence.

ဒီသားတစ်ယောက်ကလွဲပြီး တခြားအားကိုးစရာမရှိပါ။

de2 tha3 ta1-yout ga1 lweare3 pyi3 ta1-cha3 ah3-ko3 za1-ya2 ma1-shi1 ba2

Apart from this son there is no one else to depend on.

this + son + 1 + person + apart from/except + other + something or someone to depend on + not + have + ending emphasis. [colloquial]

Colloquial conjunction ကလွဲလို့ | ga1 lweare3 lo1 may also be used in place of ကလွဲပြီး | ga1 lweare3 pyi3 in the above sentence.

သူရော ကျွန်တော်ရော ဝင်ပြိုင်ကြတယ်။

thu2 yau3 kja1-nau2 yau3 win2 pyine2 ja1 deare2

Both he and I entered the Contest.

he + also + I + also + enter + compete + plural of the verb + ending ppm. [colloquial]

ခေါက်ဆွဲကြော်ကော ထမင်းကြော်ကော မှာထားတယ်။

khout-hsweare3 jau2 gau3 hta1-min3 jau2 gau3 hma2 hta3 deare2

I've already ordered both fried noodle and fried rice.

fried noodle + also + fried rice + also + make an order + suffix to indicate prior action that is still in effect + ending ppm.[colloquial]

Colloquial conjunctions ရော | yau3 and ကော | gau3 are interchangeable.

§ 14.2.2 ဝါကျဆက်သမ္ဗန္ဓ | wet-kja1-hset thun2-bun2-da1 are conjunctions that connect simple sentences known as ဝါကျရိုး | wet-kja1 yo3. When this type of conjunction is used, the ending postpositional marker of the first simple sentence such as ပြီ and သည် are removed and replaced with the conjunction. In some cases, there is a tone change to the ending postpostional marker of the first simple sentence. E.g., သည် becomes သည့်. In effect, they connect simple clauses.

  • | yway1 -- therefore; after; because (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • လို့ | lo1 -- because (colloquial) MP3 Audio File
  • သောကြောင့် | dthau3-joun1 -- due to the fact that; because; as a result (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • ပြီး | pyi3 -- after (colloquial) MP3 Audio File
  • လျက် | hlyet -- while (literary)
  • ရင်း | yin3 -- while (colloquial)
  • တုန်း | dome3 -- while (colloquial)
  • သောအခါ | dthau3 a-kha2 -- when (literary)
  • နှင့်တစ်ပြိုင်နက် | hnin1 da1-byine2-net -- as soon as (literary)
  • သာမက ... လည်း | dtha2 ma1-ka1 ... leare3 MP3 Audio File -- not only ... but also (literary)
  • လျှင် | hlyin2 -- if (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • ရင် | yin2 -- if (colloquial)
  • ဆိုရင် | hso2-yin2 -- if (colloquial) MP3 Audio File
  • ဆိုလျှင် | hso-hlyin2 -- if (literary)
  • က | ga1 -- if
  • သကဲ့သို့ | dtha1-keare1-dtho1 -- just like; as if (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • သော်လည်း | dthau2 leare3 -- although (literary)
  • စေကာမူ | zay2-ga2-mu2 -- nevertheless (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • ထက် | htet -- more than
  • ရန် | yan2 -- in order to; so as to (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • အောင် | oun2 -- in order to; so as to (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • စေရန် | zay2-yan2 -- in order to (literary)
  • ဖို့ | pfo1 -- for; in order to (colloquial) MP3 Audio File

Examples

(A) မောင်ဘသည် ကြိုးစားသည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 kjo3-za3 dthi2

Maung Ba works hard.

Maung Ba + ppm marking Maung Ba is a subject + try hard + ending ppm.

(B) မောင်ဘသည် အောင်မြင်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 oun2 myin2 dthi2

Maung Ba is successful.

Maung Ba + ppm marking Maung Ba is a subject + find success + ending ppm.

The above two simple sentences can be combined with the conjunction | yway1 or သောကြောင့် | dthau3 joun1 as follow:

(AB1) မောင်ဘသည် ကြိုးစားသောကြောင့် အောင်မြင်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 kjo3-za3 dthau3 joun1 oun2 myin2 dthi2

Maung Ba works hard. As a result, he is successful.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + try hard + as a result + be successful + ending ppm.

(AB2) မောင်ဘသည် ကြိုးစား အောင်မြင်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 kjo3-za3 yway1 oun2 myin2 dthi2

Maung Ba works hard. Therefore, he is successful.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + try hard + therefore + be successful + ending ppm.

The conjunction | yway1 can also be used to connect two activities one after another as shown in (CD1) below.

(C) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 htoon3 dthi2

Maung Ba lights up the candle.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm.

(D) မောင်ဘသည် စာဖတ်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 sa2 pfut dthi2

Maung Ba reads a book.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + word/letter + read + ending ppm.

(CD1) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်း စာဖတ်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 htoon3 yway1 sa2 pfut dthi2

Maung Ba reads a book after lighting up the candle.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + after that + word/letter + read + ending ppm.

(CD2) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းပြီး စာဖတ်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 htoon3 pyi3 sa2 pfut dthi2

Maung Ba reads a book after lighting up the candle.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + after that + word/letter + read + ending ppm.

(E) ညအခါ မီးပျက်သည်။

nya1 a-kha2 mi3 pyet dthi2

At night time, electricity goes out.

night + that time + light + fail/not in working order + ending ppm.

(F) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 htoon3 dthi2

Maung Ba lights up the candle.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm.

(EF1) ညအခါ မီးပျက်သောအခါ မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။

nya1 a-kha2 mi3 pyet dthau3 a-kha2 moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 htoon3 dthi2

When electricity goes out at night, Maung Ba lights up the candle.

night + that time + light + fail/not in working order + when + Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm.

(EF2) ညအခါ မီးပျက်သည်နှင့်တစ်ပြိုင်နက် မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။

nya1 a-kha2 mi3 pyet dthi2 hnin1 da1-byine2-net moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 htoon3 dthi2

As soon as electricity goes out at night, Maung Ba lights up the candle.

night + that time + light + fail/not in working order + ending ppm + as soon as + Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm.

(G) မောင်ဘသည် မြန်မာစာတော်သည်။

moun2-ba1 dthi2 myan2-ma2 sa2 tau2 dthi2

Maung Ba is good in Myanmar Language.

Maung Ba + ppm to indicate subject + Burmese + excel in something + ending ppm.

(H) မောင်ဘသည် အင်္ဂလိပ်စာတော်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 in3-ga1-late sa2 tau2 dthi2

Maung Ba is good in English.

Maung Ba + ppm to indicate subject + English + excel in something + ending ppm.

(GH) မောင်ဘသည် မြန်မာစာတော်သည် သာမက အင်္ဂလိပ်စာလည်း တော်သည်။

moun2-ba1 dthi2 myan2-ma2 sa2 tau2 dthi2 dtha2 ma1-ka1 in3-ga1-late sa2 leare3 tau2 dthi2

Maung Ba is not only good in Myanmar Language, but also good in English.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + Myanmar Language + excel in something + ending ppm + not only + English + also + excel in something + ending ppm.

(I) ဈေးစောစောသွားသည်။

zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 dthi2

(You) go to the market early.

market + early + go + ending ppm.

(J) ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်သည်။

bu3-dthi3 jau2 ya1 nine2 dthi2

(You) can get fried melon.

melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm.

(IJ1) ဈေးစောစောသွားလျှင် ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်သည်။

zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 hlyin2 bu3-dthi3 jau2 ya1 nine2 dthi2

If you go to the market early, you can get fried melon.

market + early + go + if + melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm.

(IJ2) ဈေးစောစောသွားရင် ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်တယ်။

zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 yin2 bu3-dthi3 jau2 ya1 nine2 deare2

If you go to the market early, you can get fried melon.

market + early + go + if + melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm. [colloquial]

(IJ3) ဈေးစောစောသွားက ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်သည်။

zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 ga1 bu3-dthi3 jau2 ya1 nine2 dthi2

If you go to the market early, you can get fried melon.

market + early + go + if + melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm.

Fried Melons are served on top of Burmese Fish Gravy Rice Noodle Mont Hin Ga. They don't stay crispy for the whole day and they are usually sold out early in the breakfast time.

(K) သကြားသည်ချိုသည်။

dtha1-ja3 dthi2 cho2 dthi2

Sugar is sweet.

sugar + ppm marking subject + sweet + ending ppm.

(L) ပျားရည်လည်းချိုသည်။

pya3 yay2 leare3 cho2 dthi2

Honey is also sweet.

honey + also + sweet + ending ppm.

(KL) သကြားသည်ချိုသကဲ့သို့ ပျားရည်လည်းချိုသည်။

dtha1-ja3 dthi2 cho2 dtha1-keare1-dtho1 pya3-yay2 leare3 cho2 dthi2

Honey is sweet just like sugar.

sugar + ppm marking subject + sweet + just like/as if/similar to + honey + also + sweet + ending ppm.

(M) ဤဆေးသည်ခါးသည်။

e2 hsay3 dthi2 kha3 dthi2

This medicine is bitter.

this + medicine + ppm marking subject + bitter + ending ppm.

(N) ပျားရည်ကချိုသည်။

pya3 yay2 ga1 cho2 dthi2

Honey is sweet.

honey + as for the subject "honey" + sweet + ending ppm.

(MN) ဤဆေးသည်ခါးသော်လည်း ပျားရည်ကချိုသည်။

e2 hsay3 dthi2 kha3 dthau2 leare3 pya3 yay2 ga1 cho2 dthi2

Although this medicine is bitter, honey is sweet.

this + medicine + ppm marking subject + bitter + although/but + honey + is + sweet + ending ppm.

The word က was used earlier in (IJ3) as a conjunction connecting action and consequence. But, in (N), it is a postpositional marker showing the subject "honey".

(O) သကြားသည်ချိုသည်။

dtha1-ja3 dthi2 cho2 dthi2

Sugar is sweet.

sugar + ppm marking subject + sweet + ending ppm.

(P) ဆေးသကြားကပိုချိုသည်။

hsay3-dtha1-ja3 ga1 po2 cho2 dthi2

Saccharin is sweeter.

saccharin + ppm marking subject + more + sweet + ending ppm.

(OP) သကြားချိုသည်ထက် ဆေးသကြားကပိုချိုသည်။

dtha1-ja3 cho2 dthi2 htet hsay3-dtha1-ja3 ga1 po2 cho2 dthi2

Saccharin is sweeter than sugar.

sugar + sweet + ending ppm + more than + saccharin + ppm marking subject + more + sweet + ending ppm.

(Q) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ကိုင်ထားသည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 kine2 hta3 dthi2

Maung Ba is holding a candle.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + hold in the hand + present participle + ending ppm.

(R) မောင်ဘသည် အခန်းထဲသို့ ဝင်လာသည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 a-khan3 hteare3 dtho1 win2 la2 dthi2

Maung Ba comes inside the room.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + room + inside + ppm marking destination + enter + come + ending ppm.

(QR) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ကိုင်လျက် အခန်းထဲသို့ ဝင်လာသည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 kine2 hlyet a-khan3 hteare3 dtho1 win2 la2 dthi2

While holding a candle, Maung Ba comes inside the room.

Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + hold in the hand + while + room + inside + ppm marking destination + enter + come + ending ppm.

(S) အစိုးရသည် ဤမြို့ကို လျှပ်စစ်မီးမှန်မှန်ပေးိနုင်သည်။

a-so3-ya1 dthi2 e2 myo1 go2 hlyut-sit mi3 hmun2 hmun2 pay3 nine2 dthi2

Government can provide this city with regular supply of electricity.

government + ppm showing subject + this + city + ppm showing object + electric + light + regularly + provide + can + ending ppm.

(T) အစိုးရသည် စီမံကိန်းများချမှတ်ရမည်။

a-so3-ya1 dthi2 si2-mun2-gain3 mya3 cha1 hmut ya1 myi2

Government must lay down plans.

government + ppm marking subject + implementation plan + plural marker + lay down + must + ending ppm marking future action.

(ST) အစိုးရသည် ဤမြို့ကို လျှပ်စစ်မီးမှန်မှန်ပေးနိုင်စေရန် စီမံကိန်းများချမှတ်ရမည်။

a-so3-ya1 dthi2 e2 myo1 go2 hlyut-sit mi3 hmun2 hmun2 pay3 nine2 zay2 yan2 si2-mun2-gain3 mya3 cha1 hmut ya1 myi2

In order to provide regular electric supply to this city, government must lay down implementation plans.

government + ppm marking subject + this + city + ppm marking object + electric + light + regularly + provide + can + in order to + implementation plan + plural marker + lay down + must + ending ppm marking future action.

For decades, budget is the main constraint in providing 24/7 electricity in this country. Myanmar is expected to be sufficient in electric energy for the whole country in the year 2030.

§ 14.2.3 အဓိပ္ပါယ်ဆက်သမ္ဗန္ဓ | a-date-peare2-hset thun2-bun2-da1 are characterized by two separate sentences in which the second sentence starts with a conjunction word that has logical connection to the first sentence. English equivalents are "Therefore", "However", "In addition", etc..

  • ထို့ကြောင့် | hto1-joun1 -- Therefore; As a result (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • ထို့ပြင် | hto1-pyin2 -- Moreover (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • ထိုအခါ | hto2 a-kha2 -- When
  • ထို့ပြင် ... လည်း | hto1-pyin2 ... leare3 -- In addition ... also
  • ထို့နောက် | hto1 nout -- Afterwards
  • သို့သော်လည်း | dtho1-dthau2 leare3 -- However
  • သို့ရာတွင် | dtho1-ya2-dwin2 -- However; But (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • အဘယ်ကြောင့်ဆိုသော် | a-beare2-joun1-hso2-dthau2 -- The reason is that (literary) MP3 Audio File
  • အကြောင်းမူကား | a-kjoun3-mu2-ga3 -- The reason is
  • အကြောင်းမှာကား | a-kjoun3-mha2-ga3 -- The reason is
  • အကြောင်းမှာမူ | a-kjoun3-mha2-mu2-- The reason is
  • အကြောင်းသော်ကား | a-kjoun3-dthau2-ga3-- The reason is
  • ဒါဖြင့် | da2-pfyin1 -- If this is the case (colloquial) See example
  • ဒါပေမဲ့ | da2-pay2-meare1 -- But (colloquial) See example

Examples

(U) မောင်ဘသည် အလုပ်ကြိုးစားသည်။

moun2 ba2 dthi2 a-loat kjo3-za3 dthi2

Maung Ba works hard.

Maung Ba + subject marker + work + works hard + ending ppm.

(V) သူသည်လုပ်ငန်းပိုင်ရှင် တစ်ဦးဖြစ်လာသည်။

thu2 dthi2 loat-ngan3 pine2-shin2 ta1-u3 pfyit la2 dthi2

He becomes a business owner.

he + subject marker + business + owner + one + person + become + ending ppm.

(UV) မောင်ဘသည် အလုပ်ကြိုးစားသည်။ ထို့ကြောင့် သူသည်လုပ်ငန်းပိုင်ရှင် တစ်ဦးဖြစ်လာသည်။

moun2 ba2 dthi2 a-loat kjo3-za3 dthi2 hto1-joun1 thu2 dthi2 loat-ngan3 pine2-shin2 ta1-u3 pfyit la2 dthi2

Maung Ba works hard. As a result, he becomes a business owner.

Maung Ba + subject marker + work + works hard + ending ppm + as a result/consequently + he + subject marker + business + owner + one + person + become + ending ppm.

(W) ည (၈)နာရီတိတိအချိန်၌ မီးပျက်သွားသည်။

nya1 shit na2-yi2 ti1-de1 a-chain2 hnite mi3 pyet thwa3 dthi2

The light goes out exactly 8 at night.

night + 8 + O'clock + exact + time + at + light + out of order + gone + ending ppm.

(X) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်မီးထွန်းလိုက်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 mi3 htoon3 lite dthi2

Maung Ba goes ahead and lights up the candle without hesitation.

Maung Ba + subject marker + candle + fire/light + light up something for visibility + go ahead and do something without hesitation + ending ppm.

(WX) ည (၈)နာရီတိတိအချိန်၌ မီးပျက်သွားသည်။ ထိုအခါ မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်မီးထွန်းလိုက်သည်။

nya1 shit na2-yi2 ti1-de1 a-chain2 hnite mi3 pyet thwa3 dthi. hto2 a-kha2 moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3 dine2 mi3 htoon3 lite dthi2

When the light goes out exactly 8 at night, Maung Ba goes ahead and lights up the candle without hesitation.

night + 8 + O'clock + exact + time + at + light + out of order + gone + ending ppm + when that happens + Maung Ba + subject marker + candle + fire/light + light up something for visibility + go ahead and do something without hesitation + ending ppm.