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Color Codes: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, particles, postpositional markers, interjections.

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Lesson 60: Burmese Grammar made easy — part 2 — Noun++

In part 1 of the Burmese grammar series, we have seen how particles and postpositional markers play their roles in spoken phrases as well as in sentence structures of the written Burmese language. Most of the earlier discussions had to to with the verbs. We will now see how the particles and postpositional markers play their supporting roles for the nouns and pronouns. The 17 types of postpositional markers used as suffixes after the nouns and pronouns are called နာမ်ဝိဘတ် | nun2 we1-but, MP3 Audio File and the 9 types of particles used as suffixes after the nouns and pronouns are known as နာမ်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 pyit-si3. MP3 Audio File

Yes, 17 + 9 types or classifications, not 17 + 9 words. But, they don't have to be intimidating. If you master about 75 of such words, you will be as good as any college level educated Burmese in conversational as well as in literary Burmese. If you want to be a proficient writer in Burmese, you must practice using those in sentences. I will give some English examples first to give you a general idea as to what those are.

Learn Burmese Grammar

Students + are + listening + to + the teacher.

If the word order in this sentence is to be re-arranged like in the Burmese sentence without adding any extra words, it will go like this:

Students + are + the teacher + to + listening.

Note that the preposition "to" before the noun "teacher" in English becomes the suffix word "to" after the noun "teacher" in Burmese. That suffix word after the noun is called postpositional marker after the noun နာမ်ဝိဘတ် | nun2 we1-but.

နာမ်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 pyit-si3 or suffix particles after the nouns do not belong to any one particular English grammar classification, so it's better to forget about English grammar for a while, and just observe how they are used in the Burmese language. Examples of equivalent English words are highlighted in yellow.

a pair of shoes — numerical classifier

male student — gender indicator

books — plural maker

two each — numerical modifier

approximately five — numerical modifier

I haven't even read this book. — noun-suffix support particle in relation to the verb

something like this — comparison word

like the wind unseen — poetic example

every town — all inclusiveness word

Hey, you! — exclamation

So, that's the overview of this lesson. I will call those

Noun++

This page has learning resources for all levels. If you are a beginner or intermediate level, just focus on easy spoken phrases shown as [colloquial] and don't be discouraged. Unlike the Verbs++ in the previous lesson, majority of noun related particles and postpositional markers are used in literary forms. Longer sentences in literary forms are for advanced learners, academics, and researchers.

Nouns + Particles & Postpositional Markers - နာမ်၊ ပစ္စည်း၊ ဝိဘတ် | nun2, pyit-si3, we1-but

§ 8. Nouns in Burmese grammar are classified by the four types of meaning or representation, or by the four types of constructions. Unless you are sitting for the College entrance exam, do not memorize the terms. Just browse through, observe the patterns, and take note that they are properly classified in the Burmese language.

Classification of Nouns by meaning

§ 8.1. The first type of classification of Nouns is by meaning: အနက်အဓိပ္ပာယ် | a-net a-date-peare2 MP3 Audio File

  1. Individual or private names: တစ်ဦးဆိုင်နာမ် | ta1-u3-zine2 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    ရန်ကုန် | yan2 gome2 - Yangon MP3 Audio File

    ရွှေတိဂုံ | shway2 da1-gome2 - Shwedagon MP3 Audio File

    အောင်ဆန်း | oun2 hsun3 - Aung San MP3 Audio File

    [Note: Those are equivalent to proper nouns in English grammar.]



  2. Common terms: အများဆိုင်နာမ် | a-mya3-zine2 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    မြို့ | myo1 - city MP3 Audio File

    ဘုရား | pfa1-ya3 - pagoda MP3 Audio File

    စာအုပ် | sa2-oat - book MP3 Audio File

    [Note: Those are equivalent to common nouns in English grammar.]



  3. Psychological or abstract noun: စိတ္တဇနာမ် | sate-da1-za1 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    သတ္တိ | thut-ti1 - courage MP3 Audio File

    သစ္စာ | thit-sa2 - fidelity MP3 Audio File

    မေတ္တာ | myit-ta2 - unconditional love MP3 Audio File

    [Note: Those are equivalent to abstract nouns in English grammar. There is no separate category for concrete nouns like in English which can be identified through five senses.]



  4. Conglomeration: အစုပြနာမ် | a-su1-pya1 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    မိသားစု | mi1-tha3-zu1 - family MP3 Audio File

    အစည်းအရုံး | a-si3-a-yone3 - union MP3 Audio File

    အသင်း | a-thin3 - club; team; association MP3 Audio File

    အဖွဲ့အစည်း | a-pfweare1 a-si3 - organization MP3 Audio File

Classification of Nouns by construction

§ 8.2. The second type of classification of nouns is by four types of constructions: ဖွဲ့စည်းတည်ဆောက်ပုံ | pfweare1-hsi3 ti2-hsout pone2 MP3 Audio File

  1. Original & indivisible: ပင်ကိုနာမ် | pin2-go2 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples;

    ကြက် | kjet - chicken (monosyllable) MP3 Audio File

    ထမင်း | hta1-min3 - uncooked rice (more than one syllable, but not divisible) MP3 Audio File

    စေတနာ | say2-da1-na2 - good-will (Pali; indivisible) MP3 Audio File

    မန်နေဂျာ | mun2-nay2-ja2 - manager (English loan word; indivisible in Burmese) MP3 Audio File



  2. Combinations: ပေါင်းစပ်နာမ် | poun3-sut nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    စားသောက်ဆိုင် | sa3-thout hsine2 - restaurant (eat + drink + shop) MP3 Audio File

    လက်စွပ် | let soot - finger ring (hand + to put on) MP3 Audio File

    လွယ်အိတ် | lweare2 ate - shoulder bag (slung over the shoulder + bag) MP3 Audio File

    ကြက်ဆင် | kjet hsin2 - turkey (chicken + elephant) MP3 Audio File



  3. Verb modifications: ကြိယာနာမ် | ka1-ri1-ya2 nun2. MP3 Audio File How to recognize those?

    1. Use of prefix . Examples:

      အက | a-ka1 - dance (noun), where က - to dance(verb). MP3 Audio File

      အမှု | a-hmu1 - lawsuit (noun), where မှု - to regard as important (verb). MP3 Audio File

      အလုပ် | a-loat - work; job; occupation (noun), where လုပ် - to do (verb). MP3 Audio File

      အတွဲ | a-tweare3 - (boy & girl) couple; volume (noun), where တွဲ - attach (verb). MP3 Audio File

      အသည် | a-theare2 - seller on-the-go (noun), where သည် - carry around (verb). MP3 Audio File


    2. Use of အ - အ pair which goes between the verbs. Examples:

      အကူအညီ | a-ku2 a-nyi2 - help (noun), where ကူညီ | ku2 nyi2 - to help (verb). MP3 Audio File

      အစားအသောက် | a-sa3 a-thout - food (noun), where စားသောက် | sa3 thout - to eat + to drink (verb). MP3 Audio File

      အစည်းအဝေး | a-si3 a-way3 - meeting (noun), where စည်းဝေး | si3 way3 - hold a meeting. MP3 Audio File

      အထူးအဆန်း | a-htu3 a-zun3 - something unusual (noun), where ထူးဆန်း | htu3 zun3 - be strange (verb). MP3 Audio File

      အပြောင်းအလဲ | a-pyoun3 a-leare3 - change (noun), where ပြောင်းလဲ | pyoun3 leare3 - to change (verb). MP3 Audio File

      အခေါ်အဝေါ် | a-khau2 a-wau2 - term; expression (noun), where ခေါ်ဝေါ် | khau2 wau2 - be called (verb). MP3 Audio File

      However, it should be noted that words with အ - အ pairs are not always necessarily nouns, especially if there is no recognizable verb. E.g.,

      အသည်းအသန် | a-theare3 a-thun2 - seriously (adverb).


    3. Use of suffix မှု | hmu1 MP3 Audio File to show a particular case or instance of the verb. Examples:

      ကူညီမှု | ku2-nyi2 hmu1 - help (noun).

      တီထွင်မှု | ti2-htwin2 hmu1 - invention (noun).

      စိတ်ဝင်စားမှု | sate-win2-za3 hmu1 - interest; mental absorption (noun).

      ဆုတ်ယုတ်မှု | soat-yoat hmu1 - deterioration (noun).

      ကြောင့်ကြမှု | kjoun1-ja1 hmu1 - anxiety (noun).


    4. Use of suffix ခြင်း | chin3. MP3 Audio File to show general state or condition of the verb. The resulting noun is not limited to an individual. Examples:

      ရက်ရောခြင်း | yet-yau3 jin3 - generosity (noun).

      ထူးချွန်ခြင်း | htu3-joon2 jin3 - outstanding quality (noun).

      ကြင်နာခြင်း | kjin2-na2 jin3 - compassion (noun).

      မျှတခြင်း | hmya1-ta1 jin3 - fairness (noun).

      ငတ်မွတ်ခေါင်းပါးခြင်း | ngut-moot khoun3-ba3 jin3 - starvation (noun).


    5. Use of suffix ချက် | chet MP3 Audio File to pinpoint and further clarify "what" aspect of the verb. The noun itself does not state or clarify the particular point. Examples:

      ရည်ရွယ်ချက် | yi2-yweare2 jet - intention (noun)

      ကောက်နုတ်ချက် | kout-hnoat jet - excerpt; extract (noun)

      ဆုံးဖြတ်ချက် | hsone3-pfyut jet - decision (noun)

      စမ်းသပ်ချက် | sun3-thut jet - experiment (noun)

      လိုလားချက် | lo2-la3 jet - want; desire (noun)

      လိုအပ်ချက် | lo2-ut jet - deficiency; requirement (noun)


    6. Use of suffix ရေး | yay3 MP3 Audio File to show a higher purpose or aim for the community, society, nation or humanity with the desired state of the verb. Examples:

      လွတ်လပ်ရေး | loot-lut yay3 - independence (noun).

      တော်လှန်ရေး | tau2-hlun2 yay3 - revolution (noun).

      ငြိမ်းချမ်းရေး | nyain3-jan3 yay3 - peace (noun).

      ငြိမ်ဝပ်ပိပြားရေး | nyain2-woot pe1-bya3 yay3 - Law and Order (noun) This word is very vivid and contains more than one verb: be still and quiet + prostrate with fear + be pressed down and crushed + be flattened + affairs or aim.


    7. Use of suffix စရာ | za1-ya2 to portray something or someone described by the verb. Examples:

      စားစရာ | sa3 za1-ya2 - something to eat (noun) MP3 Audio File

      ချစ်စရာ | chit sa1-ya2 - something or someone adorable (noun) MP3 Audio File

      ပျော်စရာ | pyau2 za1-ya2 - enjoyable activity (noun) MP3 Audio File

      ချီးကျူးစရာ | chi3-kju3 za1-ya2 - praiseworthy achievement (noun) MP3 Audio File

      ရယ်စရာ | yi2 za1-ya2 - something to be laughed at; laughable matter; a joke (noun) MP3 Audio File


      စဉ်းစားစရာ | sin3-za3 za1-ya2 - something to think about (noun) MP3 Audio File

      သနားစရာ | tha1-na3 za1-ya2 - something deserving pity (noun) MP3 Audio File

      ရှက်စရာ | shet sa1-ya2 - something shameful (noun) MP3 Audio File

      ရွံစရာ | yoon2 za1-ya2 - something disgusting (noun) MP3 Audio File



  4. Qualitative: ဂုဏ်ရည်ပြနာမ် | gome2-yay2-pya1 nun2 MP3 Audio File are quite similar to the verb modifications with the use of suffix အ၊ မှု၊ ခြင်း ချက် | ah1, hmu1, chin3, chet, except for that those are modified from adjectives. In addition, those words usually have words with opposite qualities or antonyms without the need for the negative prefix | ma1

    1. Use of prefix . Examples:

      အဟောင်း | a-houn3 - something old (noun), where ဟောင်း - worn out (adjective).

      အသစ် | a-thit - something new (noun), where သစ် - new (adjective).

      အချို | a-cho2 - sweetness of taste (noun), where ချို - sweet (adjective).

      အခါး | a-kha3 - bitterness of taste (noun), where ခါး - bitter (adjective).

      အဖြူ | a-pfyu2 - white color (noun), where ဖြူ - white (adjective).

      အမည်း | a-meare3 - black color (noun), where မည်း - black (adjective).

    2. Use of suffix မှု. Examples:

      ကောင်းမှု | koun3 hmu1 - good deed (noun), where ကောင်း - good (adjective).

      မိုက်မဲမှု | mite-meare3 hmu1 - stupidity (noun), where မိုက်မဲ - foolish (adjective).

      ရဲဝံ့မှု | yeare3-woon1 hmu1 - bravery (noun), where ရဲဝံ့ - brave (adjective).

      သတ္တိကြောင်မှု | thut-ti1 kjoun2 hmu1 - cowardice (noun), where သတ္တိကြောင် - cowardly (adjective).

      ပေါ့လျော့မှု | pau1-yau1 hmu1 - negligence (noun), where ပေါ့လျော့ - inattentive (adjective).

    3. Use of suffix ခြင်း. Examples:

      လိမ္မာခြင်း | lain2-ma2 jin3 - good manner (noun), where လိမ္မာ - polite and well-behaved (adjective).

      ရိုးသားခြင်း | yo3-tha3 jin3 - honesty (noun), where ရိုးသား - honest (adjective).

      ဖြောင့်မတ်ခြင်း | pfyoun1-mut jin3 - straightforwardness (noun), where ဖြောင့်မတ် - straightforward (adjective).

      ချိုသာခြင်း | cho2-tha3 jin3 - pleasant disposition (noun), where ချိုသာ - sweet sounding (adjective).

      ပါးနပ်ခြင်း | pa3-nut jin3 - shrewdness (noun), where ပါးနပ် - shrewd (adjective).

      မိုက်ရိုင်းခြင်း | mite-yine3 jin3 - rudeness (noun), where မိုက်ရိုင်း - rude (adjective).

      ဆိုးဝါးခြင်း | hso3-wa3 jin3 - bad condition (noun), where ဆိုးဝါး - bad (adjective).

      ညံ့ဖျင်းခြင်း | nyan1-pfyin3 jin3 - poor performance (noun), where ညံ့ဖျင်း - lousy (adjective).

      ရိုးအခြင်း | yo3-ah1 jin3 - naivety (noun), where ရိုးအ - naive (adjective).

      ယုတ်မာခြင်း | yoat-ma2 jin3 - unethical behavior (noun), where ယုတ်မာ - despicable (adjective).

    4. Use of suffix ချက်. Examples:

      အားနည်းချက် | ah3-neare3 jet - weakness; weak point (noun), where အားနည်း - weak (adjective).

      အားသာချက် | ah3-tha2 jet - strength; strong point (noun), where အားသာ - strong; relatively stronger (adjective).

Gender Classifications of Nouns

§ 9. လိင် | lain2 MP3 Audio File - gender or sex classifications show whether the noun (living beings, plants, nature, objects) or pronoun is male, female, unisex (gender neutral), or no gender. Objects in Burmese don't have gender like German or French.

  1. ပုလ္လိင် | pone3 lain2 MP3 Audio File - Male. Examples:

    ဦးလေး | u3 lay3 - Uncle

    ကျွန်တော် | kja1-nau2 - I (male term).

    သူရကျော်စွာ | thu2-ra1 kjau2-zwa2 - Thura Kyaw Swa (obvious male Burmese name)

  2. ဣတ္ထိလ္လိင် | ate-hti1 lain2 MP3 Audio File - Female. Examples:

    အမေ | a-may2 - mother

    ကျွန်မ | kja1-ma1 - I (female term)

    နန္ဒာလှိုင် | nun2-da2 hline2 - Nundar Hlaing (obvious female Burmese name)

  3. ဒွိလိင် | dwe1 lain2 MP3 Audio File - Unisex or gender neutral. Examples:

    အမျိုး | a-myo3 - relative

    ကျွန်ုပ် | kja1-noat - I (literary, unisex)

    ငါ | nga2 - I (colloquial, unisex)

    နိုင်နိုင် | nine2 nine2 - Naing Naing (can be either male or female Burmese nickname just like "Jordan", "Jessie", "Alexis", "Jamie", "Leslie", etc..)

    သရက်ပင် | tha1-yet pin2 - mango tree

    မြွေ | mway2 - snake. Unlike hens and cocks, some animals, reptiles, birds and insects are gender neutral.

  4. နပုလ္လိင် | na1-pone3 lain2 MP3 Audio File - No gender. Nature, Universe, and man-made objects belong to this group. Examples:

    အိမ် | ain2 - house

    ကြယ် | kjeare2 - star

    ရေ | yay2 - water

    မီး | mi3 - fire

Postpositional Markers after Nouns and Pronouns

§ 10. The 17 classifications of postpositional markers (PPM) relating to the nouns known as နာမ်ဝိဘတ် | nun2 we1-but are listed below. Those words are used as suffixes after nouns or pronouns. Note that some of those postpositional markers can be used in more than one category.

§ 10.1 - ကတ္တားဝိဘတ် | kut-ta3 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows that the noun or pronoun in front is the subject.

Examples:

မောင်ဘသည် မြန်မာလူမျိုး ဖြစ်သည်။

moun2 ba1 dthi2 myan2-ma2 lu2-myo3 pfyit dthi2 - Maung Ba is a Burmese.

Maung Ba + subject is + Burmese + race + be + affirmation [literary]

မောင်ဘက ခွေးကို လေချွန်ပြီး ခေါ်တယ်။

moun2 ba1 ga1 khway3 go2 lay2-choon2 pyi3 khau2 deare2 MP3 Audio File

Maung Ba whistles to call the dog.

Maung Ba + shows that "Maung Ba" is the subject who acts + dog + shows that "dog" is the object acted upon + whistle + conjunction "and" + call + affirmation [colloquial]

Use conjunction | yway1 and final word သည် | dthi2 for literary form.

မောင်ဘမှာ ​ခွေးတစ်ကောင် ရှိတယ်။

moun2 ba1 hma2 khway3 da1-goun2 shi1 deare2 MP3 Audio File

Maung Ba has a dog.

Maung Ba + equivalent to "has" that shows that "Maung Ba" is the subject + dog + 1 + numerical classifier for animals + exist + affirmation. [colloquial]

§ 10.2 - ကံဝိဘတ် | kun2 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows that the noun or pronoun in front is the object.

Example:

သူ့ကိုသွားပြော။

thu1 go2 thwa3 pyau3 MP3 Audio File

Go and tell him.

him + to + go + tell [colloquial]

§ 10.3 - ထွက်ခွာရာပြဝိဘတ် | htwet-khwa2-ya2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows departure from.

Examples:

မန္တလေးမှလာသော မီးရထား

mun3-da1-lay3 hma1 la2 dthau3 mi3-ya1-hta3

The train that comes from Mandalay

Mandalay + from + come + particle to modify "come" to adjective + train [literary]

မန္တလေးက လာတယ်။

mun3-da1-lay3 ga1 la2 deare2 MP3 Audio File

(I) came from Mandalay.

Mandalay + from + come + affirmation [colloquial]

§ 10.4 - ရှေူးရှုရာပြဝိဘတ် | shay3-shu2-ya2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows direction towards.

Example:

ဧရာဝတီမြစ်သည် မြောက်ဘက်မှ တောင်ဘက်သို့စီးဆင်းသည်။

ay2-ya2-wa1-de2 myit dthi2 myout-bet hma1 toun2-bet dtho1 si3-hsin3 dthi2

Ayeyarwaddy River flows from North to South.

Ayeyarwaddy + river + subject is + North + direction + from + South + direction + to + flow + down + affirmation [literary]

§ 10.5 - ဆိုက်ရောက်ရာပြဝိဘတ် | hsite-yout-ya2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows up to certain destination or time.

Example:

ညနေ (၄) နာရီအထိပဲ လုပ်မယ်။

nya1-nay2 lay3 na2-yi2 a-hti1 beare3 loat meare2 MP3 Audio File

(We) will only work till 4 in the evening.

evening + 4 O'clock + till + only + work + will [colloquial]

§ 10.6 - အသုံးခံပြဝိဘတ် | a-thone3-khan2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows utility "with".

Examples:

ကတ်ကြေးနှင့် အဖတ်လေးကို ဖြတ်ပါ။

kut-kjay3 hnin1 a-pfut-lay3 go2 pfyut ba2

Please cut this small piece with scissors.

scissors + with + substance + small + PPM that shows that the noun or pronoun in front is the object + cut + polite suggestion. [literary]

စန်းထွေးသည် မန္တလေးသို့ လေယာဉ်ဖြင့်သွားသည်။

sun3-htway3 dthi2 mun3-da1-lay3 dtho1 lay2-yin2 pfyin1 thwa3 dthi1

Sun Htway goes to Mandalay by plane.

Sun Htway + subject "is" + Mandalay + to + plane + with + go + affirmation. [literary]

§ 10.7 - အကြောင်းပြဝိဘတ် | a-kjoun3-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the reason or cause.

Examples:

ဘာကြောင့်မသွားတာလဲ။

ba2 joun1 ma1-thwa3 da2 leare3 MP3 Audio File

Why didn't you go?

what + reason + not + go + "modify verb into noun: not go due to this reason" + ? [colloquial]

ဝက်ထွားလည်း ငှက်ဖျားရောဂါဖြင့် ကွယ်လွန်သွားရှာပြီ။

wet-htwa3 leare3 hnget-pfya3 yau3-ga2 pfyin1 kweare2-loon2 thwa3 sha2 byi2

What a pity that Wet Htwa has died from malaria as well.

Wet Htwa + also + malaria + with + passed away + has gone + tone of pity + has reached certain stage or condition. [literary]

§ 10.8 - လက်ခံပြဝိဘတ် | let-khan2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that points to the receiver.

Example:

ဆရာဝန်က ဆေးကို လူနာအားပေးသည်။

sa1-ya2-woon2 ga1 hsay3 go2 lu2-na2 ah3 pay3 dthi2

Doctor gives medicine to the patient.

doctor + makes "doctor" the subject + medicine + makes "medicine" the object + patient + PPM to indicate receiver + give + affirmation. [literary]

Colloquial form omits this PPM with different word order:

ဆရာဝန်က လူနာကို ဆေးပေးတယ်။

sa1-ya2-woon2 ga1 lu2-na2 go2 hsay3 pay3 deare2 MP3 Audio File

doctor + subject + patient + object + medicine + give + affirmation. [colloquial]

§ 10.9 - နေရာပြဝိဘတ် | nay2-ya2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows location equivalent to "at", "in", "on".

Examples:

ဒီမှာရပ်ပါ။

de2 hma2 yut ba2 MP3 Audio File

Please stop here.

this place + at + stop + polite request. [colloquial]

ဝေဟင်ဝယ် လေယာဉ်သည် ငွေစင်ရော်လေး သကဲ့သို့ ဝဲပျံနေလေသည်။

way2-hin2 weare2 lay2-yin2 dthi2 ngway2-zin2-yau2-lay3 dtha1-keare1-dhto1 weare3-pyan2 nay2 lay2 dhi2

The plane soars above and hovers in the sky just like a little silver gull.

sky + at + plane + subject "is" + little silver gull + as if + hover and fly + present participle + a sense of lonely sadness + affirmation. [poetic]

အိမ်ပေါ်က ထိုင်ခုံပါ ယူလာခဲ့။

ain2-pau2 ga1 htine2-gome2 ba2 yu2 la2 kheare1 MP3 Audio File

Bring along the chair from upstairs as well.

upper floor of the house + from + chair + also + bring along + emphasis to be sure. [colloquial]

§ 10.10 - အချိန်ပြဝိဘတ် | a-chain2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows time equivalent to "in", "at", "on".

Examples:

ည (၈) နာရီတွင် လေယာဉ် ဆိုက်ရောက်မည်။

nya1 shit na2-yi2 dwin2 lay2-yin2 hsite yout myi2

Aircraft will land at 8 PM.

night + 8 + o'clock + at + plane + land + reach + affirmation. [literary]

ကျွန်တော်သည် ညဉ့်ဦးယံဝယ် ရုတ်တရက် ကြက်တွန်သံကြားရ၍ အလွန် အံ့အားသင့်သွားသည်။

kja1-nau2 dthi2 nyin1-u3-yan2 weare2 yoat-ta1-yet kjet toon2 dthun2 kja3 ya1 yway1 a-loon2 un1-ah3-thin1 thwa3 dthi2

I was very astonished to hear the crow of the cock just before the mid-night hours.

I + subject "am" + before mid-night + at + suddenly + cock + crow + sound + hear + get to + because + extremely + astonished + emphasis "gone to such state of mind" + affirmation. [literary, poetic]

မနေ့တုန်းက ဝယ်ထားတယ်။

ma1-nay1 dome3 ga1 weare2 hta3 deare2 MP3 Audio File

(I) have already bought it yesterday.

yesterday + indicate the time in the past + on + buy + keeping it till the present time + affirmation. [colloquial]

§ 10.11 - ပိုင်ဆိုင်ခြင်းဝိဘတ် | pine2-zine2-jin3 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows possession.

Examples:

မောင်ဘ၏ စာအုပ်

moun2 ba1 e1 sa2-oat

Maung Ba's book

Maung Ba + 's + book [literary]

အားလုံးရဲ့ တယ်လီနော

ah3-lone3 yeare1 teare2-li2-nau3 MP3 Audio File

Everyone's Telenor (Telenor for everyone.)

everyone + 's + Telenor. [colloquial]

§ 10.12 - လိုက်လျောပြဝိဘတ် | lite-lyau3-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows compliance.

Examples:

စည်းကမ်းဖေါက်ဖျက်လျှင် ဥပဒေအရ အရေးယူခံရမည်။

si3-kun3 pfout-pfyet hlyin2 u1-ba1-day2 a-ya1 a-yay3 yu2 khan2 ya1 myi2

Law-breaker will be taken action according to the law.

rule + break + if + law + according to + take action + be subjected to + get + future tense. [literary]

ပြောတဲ့စကား အတိုင်းသာလုပ်ပါ။

pyau3 deare1 za1-ga3 a-tine3 dtha2 loat ba2

Just do what you were told.

say + particle to modify verb into adjective + word + in accordance with + just + do + polite persuasion. [colloquial]

The above is the colloquial phrase. Usually the noun za1-ga3 is omitted.

ပြောတဲ့အတိုင်းလုပ်ပါ။

pyau3 deare1 a-tine3 loat ba2 MP3 Audio File

Do as I say. [colloquial]

The adjective pyau3 deare1 refers to the noun za1-ga3 - word.

ရာသီအလျောက် ပန်းများဖူးပွင့်သည်။

ya2-dthi2 a-lyout pan3 mya3 pfu3 pwin1 dthi2

Flowers blossom in accordance with the season.

season + in accordance with + flower + plural + buds to blossom and bloom into flowers + affirmation. [literary]

ကံအားလျော်စွာ ကယ်ဆယ်သူများ အချိန်မီရောက်လာကြသည်။

kun2 ah3-lyau2 zwa2 keare2-zeare2-dthu2 mya3 a-chain2 hmi2 yout la2 ja1 dthi2

Fortunately, rescuers came in time.

luck + goes in favor + rescuer + plural + in time + arrive + come + plurality of the verb + affirmation. [literary]

§ 10.13 - ယှဉ်တွဲပြဝိဘတ် | shin2-tweare3-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows accompaniment or corresponding relation.

Examples:

မည်သူမဆို ကြိုးစားမှုနှင့်အမျှ အောင်မြင်နိုင်သည်။

myi2-dthu2 ma1-hso2 kjo3-za3-hmu1 hnin1 a-hmya1 oun2-myin2 nine2 dthi2

With deserving effort, it's possible for anyone to find success.

whoever + no matter + effort + with equivalent + success + possible + affirmation. [literary]

ဘကြီးဖြိုးနှင့်အတူ အစ်မကြီးစိုးလည်း လိုက်ပါလာသေးသည်။

ba1-ji3 Pfyo3 hnin1 a-tu2 a-ma1-ji3 So3 leare3 lite pa2 la2 thay3 dthi2

Big sister "Soe" also came along with elder Uncle "Pfyo".

elder uncle "Pfyo" + along with + big sister "Soe" + also + [follow + accompany + come] + still in addition to emphasize "also" + affirmation. [literary]

ကျွန်တော်တို့သည် ရန်ကုန်မြို့၌ သင်္ကြန်ကို မြန်မာ့ဓလေ့ထုံးစံ နှင့်အညီ ကျင်းပကြသည်။

kja1-nau2 doh1 dthi2 yan2-gome2 myo1 hnite dtha1-jan2 go2 myan2-ma1 da1-lay1 htone3-zun2 hnin1 a-nyi2 kjin3-pa1 ja1 dthi2

- We celebrate "Thingyan" water festival in Yangon in accordance with the traditional Myanmar culture.

[I + plural = we] + subject + Yangon + city + at + Thingyan water festival + object + Myanmar's + tradition + custom + in accordance with + celebrate + plural + affirmation. [literary]

§ 10.14 - ခွဲထုတ်ရာပြဝိဘတ် | khweare3-htoat-ya2-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that separate out and highlight an item.

Examples:

အသားတွင် ဝက်၊ အသီးတွင် သရက်၊ အရွက်တွင် လက်ဖက်

a-tha3 dwin2 wet, a-thi3 dwin2 tha1-yet, a-ywet dwin2 la1-pfet

When it comes to meat, pork is the best; similarly, mangoes in fruits, and pickled tea among leaves.

meat + in + pork + fruits + in + mango + leaves + in + picked tea leaves. [traditional saying]

သတ္တုများအနက် သံမဏိသည် အမာဆုံးဖြစ်သည်။

thut-tu1 mya3 a-net thun2-ma1-ni1 dthi2 a-ma2 zone3 pfyit dthi2

Steel is the hardest among all metals.

metal + plural "(s)" + among + steel + subject "is" + hardest + happened to be + affirmation. [literary]

နောက်ဆုံးအဆင့် အလှဆုံး ငါးယောက်အထဲမှ မေရတနာရူပ အား ရွေးချယ်ကြသည်။

nout-hsone3 a-hsin1 a-hla1-zone3 nga3 yout a-hteare3-hma1 may ya1-da1-na2 yu2-pa1 ah3 yway3-cheare2 ja1 dthi2

May Yadanar Yupa was chosen from the five most beautiful finalists.

final round + the most beautiful + 5 persons + from within + May Yadanar Yupa + PPM to indicate receiver + choose + plurality of the verb + affirmation. [literary]

သူတို့အထဲမှာ မေရတနာရူပ သည် အချောဆုံးဖြစ်သည်။

thu2 doh1 a-hteare3 hma2 may2 ya1-da1-na2 yu2-pa1 dthi2 a-chau3-zone3 pfyit dthi2

May Yadanar Yupa is the prettiest among them.

[he/she + plural = they] + among + May Yadanar Yupa + subject "is" + prettiest + happened to be + affirmation. [literary]

§ 10.15 - ရည်စူးချက်ပြဝိဘတ် | yay2-su3-chet-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the aim or dedication.

Examples:

ဒုက္ခ ခပ်သိမ်း ပျောက်စေခြင်း အကျိုးငှာ နေ့စဉ် ဘုရားတရားနှင့်အညီ နေထိုင်ရ၏။

doat-kha1 khut-thain3 pyout-zay2 jin3 a-kjo3 hnga2 nay1-zin2 pfa1-ya3 ta1-ya3 hnin1 a-nyi2 nay2-htine2 ya1 e1

For the benefit of the cessation of all Dukkha (suffering), one must live in accordance with religion everyday.

Dukkha or the pain of life + all + cessation + benefit + for + daily + religious practice + conforming to + live + get to + affirmation. [literary]

သမီးဖို့ စားစရာ ဝယ်လာတယ်။

tha1-mi3 bo1 sa3 za1-ya2 weare2 la2 deare2 MP3 Audio File

Daughter, (I) bought something to eat for you.

daughter + for + something to eat + bought and brought back + affirmation. [colloquial]

သားအတွက်လည်း ပါတယ်။

tha3 a-twet leare3 pa2 deare2 MP3 Audio File

Son, I bought something for you, also.

son + for + also + include + affirmation. [colloquial]

§ 10.16 - နေရာဆက်တိုက်ပြဝိဘတ် | nay2-ya2-zet-tite-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the continuous path to destination.

Examples:

ဤကားသည် မှော်ဘီတိုင်အောင် ပြေးဆွဲသည်။

e2 ka3 dthi2 hmau2-be2 tine2-oun2 pyay3-hsweare3 dthi2

Service route of this vehicle reaches Hmobe.

this + vehicle + subject "is" + Hmobe + till + run service + affirmation. [literary]

ဒီကား မှော်ဘီအထိ သွားတယ်။

de2 ka3 hmau2-be2 a-hti1 thwa3 deare2 MP3 Audio File

This bus goes till Hmobe.

this + bus + Hmobe + till + go + affirmation. [colloquial]

Hmobe, a town north of Downtown Yangon is the manufacturing hub for Coca Cola and Heinekan beer, as well as home to one of Myanmar's Information Technology Universities.

§ 10.17 - အချိန်ဆက်တိုက်ပြဝိဘတ် | a-chain2 zet-tite-pya1 we1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the continuity of time.

Examples:

အုန်းဇာနီလှိုင်လှိုင်သည် သုံးနာရီတိုင်တိုင် အိမ်စာလုပ်သည်။

ome3 za2-ni2 hline2-hline2 dthi2 thone3 na2-yi2 tine2-tine2 ain2-za2 loat dthi2

Ohn Zarni Hlaing Hlaing does the homework for three straight hours.

Ohn Zarni Hlaing Hlaing + subject "is" + 3 hours + up to + homework + does + affirmation. [literary]

ထားဒါလီနိုင်မောင်သည် (၅) နာရီတိုင်အောင် အလုပ်လုပ်သည်။

hta3 da2-li2 nine2-moun2 dthi2 nga3 na2-yi2 tine2-oun2 a-loat loat dthi2

Hta Dali Naing Maung works until 5.

Hta Dali Naing Maung + subject "is" + 5 O'clock + till + work [noun] + work [verb] + affirmation. [colloquial]

ပြင်ဦးလွင်တွင် ပန်းများ တစ်နှစ်ပတ်လုံး ဖူးပွင့်သည်။

pyin2-o2-lwin2 dwin2 pan3 mya3 ta1-hnit pup-lone3 pfu3 pwin1 dthi2

Flowers bloom in Pyin Oo Lwin all year around.

Pyin Oo Lwin + at + flower + plural (s) + one year + all around + bloom + affirmation. [literary]

မပြုံးပြုံးသည် တစ်လလုံးလုံး ခွင့်ယူထားသည်။

ma1 pyone3 pyone3 dthi2 ta1-la1 lone3-lone3 khwin1 yu2 hta3 dthi2

Ma Pyone Pyone has taken leave for one whole month.

Ma Pyone Pyone + subject "is" + one month + entirely up to + leave of absence + take + present continuous tense + affirmation. [literary]

Particles relating to Nouns and Pronouns

§ 11. There are nine types of particles relating to nouns. Those are called နာမ်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 pyit-si3. Noun-related particles include measure words or numerical classifiers, gender indicators, plural makers, words after numbers to show approximation, frequency, or distribution, various support words to highlight the noun in a given situation, comparison words, exclamations, and words that describe all-inclusiveness. Those do not belong to a particular classification in English grammar.

§ 11.1 မျိုးပြပစ္စည်း | myo3-pya1 pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - Numerical Classifiers or measure words are the words that follow the numbers to show what types or things that the numbers refer to.

Examples:

တစ်ခန်း | ta1-khan3 - one room

နှစ်ခု | hna1-khu1 - two items

သုံးယောက် | thone3-yout - three persons

လေးခွက် | lay3-khwet - four cups or glasses

For more comprehensive list, see the table in lesson 12.

§ 11.2 လိင်ညွှန်းပစ္စည်း | lain2-hnyoon3 pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - gender indicators show if the noun refers to male or female. Most gender indicator particles appear as suffixes, but it is also possible to appear as prefixes such as in equivalent of "Mr" and "Ms" titles in front of names.

Examples:

ဆရာမ | hsa1-ya2-ma1 - female teacher (omit ma1 for male teacher)

ကျောင်းသူ | kjoun3-dthu2 - female student

ကျောင်းသား | kjoun3-dtha3 - male student

ကြက်မ | kjet ma1 - hen

ကြက်ဖ | kjet pfa1 - cock

ဒေါ်မြအေး | dau2 mya1 ay3 - Daw Mya Aye - adult female Burmese name and title

ဦးမြအေး | u3 mya1 ay3 - U Mya Aye - adult male Burmese name and title

မောင်မြအေး | moun2 mya1 ay3 - Maung Mya Aye - young male Burmese name and title

မမြအေး | ma1 mya1 ay3 - Ma Mya Aye - female Burmese name and title

ကိုမြအေး | ko2 mya1 ay3 - Ma Mya Aye - male Burmese name and title.

Burmese does not differentiate the pronoun "he" from "she". Both are သူ | thu2. Some authors who translate English novels into Burmese use သူမ | thu2-ma1 for "she", but the word does not catch on to the mainstream Burmese speakers.

See explanations and usages in lesson 4 on how to address people.

§ 11.3 ကိန်းညွှန်းပစ္စည်း | kain3-hnyoon3 pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - plural makers are attached to some nouns to indicate that there are many of the same type. The plural maker is also used to modify the pronoun "I" to "we", and "he/she" to "them". There are just a few to remember:

  1. လုပ်သားပြည်သူများခင်ဗျာ

    loat-tha3 pyi2-dthu2 mya3 kha1-mya2 MP3 Audio File

    My fellow workers and citizens

    worker + citizen + plural word used in literary form or in formal speeches + polite addressing word by male. [formal; spoken]

    This form of addressing to the public is equivalent to: "My fellow Americans" by the president in the US.

  2. ငါတို့လည်းလိုက်မယ်ဟေ့။

    nga2 doh1 leare3 lite meare2 hay1 MP3 Audio File

    Hey, we are coming along, too!

    [I + plural = we] + also + come along + will + equivalent of "Hey". [colloquial]

  3. ပန်းတွေလှတယ်တော့

    pan3 dway2 hla1 deare2 tau1 MP3 Audio File

    Beautiful flowers!

    flower + plural + beautiful + affirmation + female exclamation word. [colloquial]

Refer to lesson 32 for details of usages on singular and plural terms.

(Also see verb-suffixed ကိန်းညွှန်းပစ္စည်း | kain3-hnyoon3 pyit-si3.)

§ 11.4 သင်္ချာလေးနက်ပစ္စည်း | thin2-cha2 lay3-net pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - numerical modifiers are used after numbers to show approximation, frequency, or distribution. Examples:

  1. တစ်ယောက် တစ်ခုစီယူပါ။

    ta1-yout ta1-khu1 si2 yu2 ba2 MP3 Audio File

    Each person, please take one each.

    one + person + one + item + each + take + polite suggestion. [colloquial]

  2. မင်္ဂလာအခမ်းအနားသို့ လူအယောက် (၃၀) ခန့် လာသည်။

    min2-ga1-la2 a-khan3-a-na3 dtho1 lu2 a-yout thone3-zeare2 khan1 la2 dthi2

    Approximately 30 people came to the wedding ceremony.

    wedding ceremony + to + people + 30 persons + approximately + come + affirmation.

  3. ဒီဆေးကို မနက်တစ်ကြိမ် ညတစ်ကြိမ် သောက်ပါ။

    de2 hsay3 go2 ma1-net da1-jain2 nya1 da1-jain2 thout ba2 MP3 Audio File

    Take this pill once in the morning, and once at night.

    this + medicine + shows the object + morning + one + time + night + one + time + drink + polite suggestion. [colloquial]

  4. (၅)နှစ်မြောက် ကုမ္ပဏီဖွင့်ပွဲ ကို Sedona Hotel ၌ ကျင်းပသည်။

    nga2-hnit myout kone2-pa1-ni2 pfwin1 pweare3 go2 se2-do3-na3 ho2-teare2 hnite kjin3-pa1 dthi2

    5th year anniversary of opening of the company is celebrated at Sedona Hotel.

    5 + year + suffix to form ordinal number + company + open + festive occasion + convert the opening clause to object + Sedona Hotel + at + celebrate + affirmation.

§ 11.5 နာမ်ထောက်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 htout pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - noun-suffix support particles are used to stress or highlight the noun in relation to the situation or to the verb in the sentence. Examples:

  1. ကိုပြာလောင်များလာရင် ဘယ်လောက်ကောင်းမလဲ

    ko2 pya2-loun2 mya3 la2 yin2 beare2-lout koun3 ma1-leare3 MP3 Audio File

    Just imagine, how nice it would be if Ko Pyar Laung came.

    Ko Pyar Laung + stress on the noun: "just imagine" + come + if + how much good + exclamation "will be". [colloquial]

    များ | mya3 is usually used to make the noun plural in literary and formal Burmese. In the above usage, it is the noun-suffix support particle that stresses the importance of the person, and imagine what the situation would be with this person around. It can be omitted and make the person called "Ko Pyar Laung" less important.

    Just like "How nice" is not a question in the above context, the usual ending question word မလဲ | ma1-leare3 is not used as a question word.

  2. မြန်မာများအနက် ဦးသန့်သာလျှင် ကမ္ဘာပေါ်မှာ ထင်ရှားသည်။

    myan2-ma2 mya3 a-net u3-thun1 dtha2-hlyin2 ga1-ba2 pau2 hma2 htin2-sha3 dthi2

    U Thant is the only distinguished Burmese in the world.

    Burmese + plural + within + U Thant + stress on the noun: "only" + World + PPM equivalent to "in" + outstanding + be + ending affirmation. [literary]

    U Thant was the Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971 during the crucial time of Cuban Missile crisis and confrontation between the two Superpowers, namely United States and Soviet Union.

  3. အဝတ်တောင် မလဲရသေးဘူး။

    a-woot doun2 ma1-leare3 ya1 thay3 bu3 MP3 Audio File

    (I) haven't even changed my clothes yet.

    clothes + even + not + change + get to + yet + negative ending. [colloquial]

  4. ကျွန်တော်ပါ လိုက်ခဲ့မယ်။

    kja1-nau2 ba2 lite kheare1 meare2 MP3 Audio File

    I am also coming along.

    I [male term] + also + come along + definitely + will. [colloquial]

  5. ကျွန်တော်လည်း လိုက်ချင်တယ်။

    kja1-nau2 leare3 lite chin2 deare2 MP3 Audio File

    I want to come along, too.

    I [male term] + too + come along + want + affirmation. [colloquial]

  6. ကျွန်တော်သည် မုန့်ဟင်းခါးတော့ ကြိုက်သည်။

    kja1-nau2 dthi2 mone1-hin3-ga3 dau1 kjite dthi2

    (I) like (XXXX) Mont-Hin-Ga (Burmese fish gravy rice noodle).

    I [male term] + subject "is" + Mont-Hin3-Ga3 + XXXX + like + affirmation. [literary]

    It's hard to translate XXXX into English. The whole sentence means that I am not too much fond of good food and or care about food, and whatever is fine with me, but I like Mont-Hin-Ga as an exception. The word describes my preference for Mont-Hin-Ga.

§ 11.6 ဥပမာပစ္စည်း | u1-ba1-ma2 pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - comparison words use nouns in front as examples or illustrations equivalent to "such as", "like", "as if", "as though" and "similar to" in English. Those comparison words can be poetic sometimes. Examples:

  1. စစ်မှန်သောအချစ်သည် စကြဝဠာကဲ့သို့ အတိုင်းအတာ မရှိပေ။

    sit-hmun2-dthau3 a-chit dthi2 set-kja2 wa2-la2 keare1-dtho1 a-tine3 a-ta2 ma1-shi1 bay2

    True love is boundless, just like the Universe.

    genuine + true + adjective modifier + love + subject "is" + Universe + similar to + measurement + not + exist + literary ending declaration word. [literary]

  2. ရူပမာလာ၏ အဆင်းသည် ပန်းအလှနှယ် နမ်းမဝစရာပင် ဖြစ်သည်။

    yu2-pa1 ma2-la2 e1 a-hsin3 dthi2 pan3 a-hla1 hneare2 nun3 ma1-wa1 za1-ya2 bin2 pfyit dthi2

    The figure of Yupa Mar Lar is like the beauty of the flower that one cannot even satiate from kissing and inhaling.

    Yupa Mar Lar + 's + appearance + subject "is" + flower + beauty + as if + kiss + not + satiate + noun modifier + even to that level + be + affirmation. [literary]

  3. ယနေ့ အင်တာနက်လိုင်းသည် နှစ်ပိဿာခွဲရှိသော ကြက်လို လေးနေသည်။

    ya1-nay1 in2-ta2-net line3 dthi2 hna1-pate-tha2 khweare3 shi1 dthau3 kjet lo2 lay3 nay2 dthi2

    Internet line today is slow like a chicken weighing 2 and a half viss (approximately 9 lbs or 4kg).

    today + Internet line + subject "is" + 2 viss + half + have + adjective modifier + chicken + like + heavy; slow; sluggish + present participle + affirmation. [literary]

§ 11.7 ရူပကပစ္စည်း | yu2-pa1-ka1 pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - metaphorical particles are similar to ဥပမာပစ္စည်း | u1-ba1-ma2 pyit-si3 - comparison words with the particle between two nouns used as comparison words. Example:

ကောင်းမှုတည်းဟူသော မျိုးစေ့

koun3-hmu1 de3 hu2-dthau3 myo3 zi1

A good deed comparable to a seed.

good deed + similar to + seed.

According to Buddhism, deeds either good or bad are like seeds that bear fruits in the future, just like the idea of reaping what one sows in the Bible.

§ 11.8 အာလုပ်ပစ္စည်း | ah2-loat pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - exclamations, also called အာမေဍိတ် | ah2-may2-date - interjections. Examples:

  1. ဟယ် လှလိုက်တာ။

    heare2 hla1 lite da2 MP3 Audio File

    Wow, so pretty!

  2. ဟေ့ မင်းဘာအူကြောင်ကြောင် လုပ်တာလဲကွ။

    hay1 min3 ba2 u2-kjoun2-joun2 loat da2 leare3 kwa1 MP3 Audio File

    Hey, are you trying to be funny with me?

    hey + you + what + confused and bewildered + does + modify the action into noun clause + ? + excited tone.

    Another translation: Hey, what are you doing? Are you trying to fool me?

  3. ရှင် | shin2 - Single word interjection by female. MP3 Audio File

  4. ဗျာ | bya2 - Single word interjection by male. MP3 Audio File

    See more details in lesson 4.

§ 11.9 ဝိစ္ဆာပစ္စည်း | wate-hsa2 pyit-si3 MP3 Audio File - all inclusiveness words show that each and every of the noun is included and/or how common or how popular is regarding the verb in the sentence.

  1. ယာဉ်စည်းကမ်းကို လူတိုင်း လူတိုင်း လိုက်နာသင့်တယ်။

    yin2 si3-kun3 go2 lu2-dine3 lu2-dine3 lite-na2 thin1 deare2 MP3 Audio File

    Everyone should obey traffic laws.

    traffic + regulations + to + human + every + human + every + observe and follow + should + affirmation. [colloquial]

  2. နိုင်ငံတကာမှာ အသုံးပြုသော နည်းပညာ

    nine2-ngan2 da1-ga2 hma2 a-thone3 pyu2 dthau3 ni3 pyin2-nya2

    technology that is being used in every country.

    nation + every + at + use + adjective modifier + technology. [literary]

  3. အမြို့မြို့ အရွာရွာ

    a myo1-myo1 a ywa2-ywa2

    in every towns and villages.

    prefix "each" + city + city + prefix "each" + village + village.

    All-inclusiveness in the above term is described by the prefix | ah1 for "each" follow by the doubling of the noun "town" or "village". There are only a few words formed with this format.

Review of Noun++

§ 12 That's all you need to know about the grammar of the Burmese nouns, noun related particles and postpositional markers to pass the college entrance exam in the Burmese language. Do you recognize the following words and know how to use those?

က၊ ကို၊ ကြောင့်၊ ခြင်း၊ ချက်၊ ရေး၊ စရာ၊ ငှာ၊ တကာ၊ တိုင်တိုင်၊ တိုင်အောင်၊ တိုင်း၊ တွင်၊ ထိ၊ ထိအောင်၊ နဲ့၊ နှင့်၊ နှင့်အတူ၊ နှင့်အညီ၊ နှင့်အမျှ၊ ရဲ့၊ ပတ်လုံး၊ ဖို့၊ ဖြင့်၊ မှ၊ မှာ၊ မှု၊ လုံးလုံး၊ ဝယ်၊ သည်၊ သို့၊ (prefixes အ အ-အ)၊ အား၊ အလိုက်၊ အရ၊ အတိုင်း၊ အတွက်၊ အထိ၊ အထဲမှ၊ အထဲမှာ၊ အဖို့၊ အလို့ငှာ၊ အနက်၊ အလျောက်၊ အားလျော်စွာ၊ ၌၊ ၏၊ ခု၊ ယောက်၊ ခွက်၊ ကောင်၊ မောင်၊ မ၊ ဒေါ်၊ ဦး၊ များ၊ တို့၊ တွေ၊ စီ၊ ခန့်၊ ကြိမ်၊ မြောက်၊ သာလျှင်၊ တောင်၊ ပါ၊ လည်း၊ တော့၊ ကဲ့သို့၊ နှယ်၊ လို၊ တည်းဟူသော၊ ဟယ်၊ ဟေ့၊ ရှင်၊ ဗျာ။