Learn Myanmar Asia Pearl Travels
The Free Online Burmese Lessons
Learn Myanmar Language, History & Culture

Color Codes: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, particles, postpositional markers, interjections.

Naing Tinnyuntpu Naing Tinnyuntpu is no stranger to systematic and efficient approach. He came from manufacturing environment with Bachelor's and Master's in Industrial Engineering (USA).

His contributions to the semiconductor industry included techniques recognized by Sematech as ‘Administrative Quality Best Practices’ during his process engineering days with now defunct IC chip making division of Hewlett-Packard in Singapore.

Born and raised in Yangon, he has lived in six countries and knowledgeable in unrelated areas including self-taught programming languages. His free online Burmese lessons serve as an effective communication bridge that connects international community with ordinary Myanmar people.

Read this page with Myanmar Script

O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?

'Why Romeo? why? Why are you speaking that way?'

Thy words sound funny. What's thin2? It is nor min3 nor kha1-mya3...

Nor tha1-mi3 nor tha3, nor any other word I use.

Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?

You will sound like Shakespeare if you speak the words used in literary Burmese Language.

Avoid Using Literary Form of Burmese Pronouns when Speaking

  1. thin2 - You
  2. a-thin2 - You
  3. thin2 doh1 - You (plural)
  4. a-thin2 doh1 - You (plural)
  5. kja1-noat - I
  6. mi1-mi1 doh1 - We
  7. dthin3 - they (derogatory)
  8. e2 - this
  9. dthi2 - this
  10. hto2 - that
  11. la1-goun3 - that; above-mentioned
  12. myi2 dthu2 - who
  13. a-beare2 - where
  14. myi2-dthi2 - what

EXCEPTION: At least one politician (former Speaker of the Lower House Thura U Shwe Mann) refers to himself as mi1-mi1 - I (first person term) in spoken form. Well, politicians can speak what they want. They are exempted.


Summary of Words and Phrases in this lesson (Sortable)
a-dau2-ji3 big aunty
a-ko2 elder brother
a-ma1 elder sister
a-may2 mother
a-hsway2-dau2 Your Excellency
au2... Oh..
au2, hote la3 Oh, I see; Is that right?
ba2 leare3 kwa1 What's going on?
beare2 leare3 a-ko2 Go where, brother?
... beare2 hma2 leare3 Where is ... ?
bya2 Yes, I'm here. (male)
bya2 male ending word
bya2 exclamation (male)
bya2 pardon me! (male)
cha2-tate kid / boy
cha2-tate-ma1 lay3 kid / girl
da2 beare2 lout leare3 how much is this?
dau2 title (elder female)
de2 hma2 here
hite! Exclamation
hote deare2 bya2 Yes, very true! (male)
hote deare2 shin1 Yes, very true! (female)
hote-keare1 kha1-mya1 Yes Sir/Madam.(male)
hote-keare1 shin1 Yes Sir/Madam. (female)
kha1-lay3 baby; child
kha1-mya2 Yes, I'm here. (male)
kha1-mya3 you (mister)
kha1-mya3 doh1 you people
kine3, kine3 ok, ok...
kjoat I (tough person)
kja1-ma1 I, my (female)
kja1-nau1 my (male)
kja1-nau2 I (male)
ko2 I (close relation)
ko2 Suffix for male names
koun2 lay3 young man / boy
koun2-ma1 lay3 young woman / girl
ku2 to help
Ku2 ba2 ome3 Please help me!
la2 byi2.. la2 byi2 Coming... coming
lite to go or come along
lu2-ji3-min3 gentleman
ma1 suffix (female names)
mate-hsway2 friend (public message)
mate-hsway2 doh1 friends (public message)
ma1-lite bu3 I'm not going with you.
ma1-thi1 bu3 don't know!
min3 you (same age, informal)
min3 doh1 you guys
moun2 dear(to male only)
moun2 Suffix for male names
moun2-yin2 you (elder to younger men)
na2-yi2 watch, clock
nau2 warm positive ending word
nga2 I (among young peers)
nga2 ma1-thi1 bu3 I don't know!
nga2 doh1 We (among peers)
nin2 you (same age,informal)
nin2 doh1 you (same age, informal)
nyi2-lay3 younger brother
nyi3 you (naive girl)
shin1 female ending word.
shin2 female ending word.
shin2 exclamation (female)
shin2 pardon me! (female)
shin2 you (female to male/female)
tha3 son
tha1-mi3 daughter
tha1-ngeare2-jin3 friend
thu1 his, her
thu2 he/she
thu2 doh1 they, them, theirs
thwa3 to go
u3 title (elder male)
yut to stop
yut meare2 going to stop

Lesson 4: Different ways to say You and I — Pronouns in Myanmar Language

Pronouns are called

nun2-za3 MP3 Audio File

where za3 is the soft spoken form of sa3, MP3 Audio File which itself is the abbreviation of a-sa3. What does a-sa3 mean? It has more than one meaning: division in math, food intake, or substitution.

sa3 in nun2-za3 refers to substitution of nun2 MP3 Audio File or the noun. In place of the names of persons, objects, and places (which are nouns), "you", "I", "he", "she", "that", "it", "they", "those", etc. are used.

Pay special attention to different ways to say "you" and "I" in Burmese. Wrong choice of "you" or "I" can be impolite and offend people, or make you sound silly if you got your gender wrong.

There are many ways to say "you" and "I" in Burmese. THOU SHALT NOT USE literary form of "you", such as thin2 or a-thin2 in spoken form, unless you are an actor in the dramatic play. This lesson covers all pronouns "you" and "I" usages you will need in colloquial Burmese.

Burmese Pronouns

There are four classifications of pronouns in Myanmar language.

  • poat-ga1-la1 nun2-za3 MP3 Audio Filepersonal pronoun

    is the part of speech that is used in place of a person. It is a coined word of a-sa3 meaning "in place of" and poat-go2 meaning "a person".

    Examples: "I", "You", "He", "She", "It". Attention must be paid to many ways to say "you" and "I" in Burmese.

  • a-hnyoon3 nun2-za3 MP3 Audio Filereferential pronoun

    points to something or someone such as, "this","that", and "above-mentioned". a-hnyoon3 means reference.

  • a-may3 nun2-za3 MP3 Audio Filequestion words

    are equivalent to "what", "who", "where" in English.

    For example, in the Burmese question: "What does she like?", "what" refers to "the thing that she likes" (noun), and it is considered a question pronoun. By the same logic, "where" in the question: "Where did he go?" refers to "the place that he went" (noun), and it is a question pronoun.

  • thin2-cha2 nun2-za3 MP3 Audio Filequantitative pronouns

    are words that show quantity, magnitude or amount such as "one person", "three cups", "four items", "some", "few", "all", "half", etc. used in place of names of objects or people.

    thin2-cha2 in direct translation refers to "math".

    This category is further grouped into two types:

    • a-yay2 a-twet pya1 thin2-cha2 nun2 za3 MP3 Audio Filenumerals.

      E.g., "one person", "three cups", "four items".

      a-yay2-a-twet means quantity and pya1 means to show.

    • pa1-ma2-na1 pya1 thin2-cha2 nun2 za3 MP3 Audio Fileunspecified numbers.

      E.g., "some", "few", "all", "half". pa1-ma2-na1 means "size" or "magnitude" and pya1 means to show.

Different words for different gender

As we have seen near the end of lesson 3, male and female Burmese speakers make use of slightly different ending words:

shin1 — is used by female speakers.

bya2 — is used by male speakers.


hote deare2 shin1

"yes, I concur.." (or) "yes, very true!".

A male speaker would say the same "yes, I concur.." (or) "yes, very true!" with the ending


hote deare2 bya2

Note the slight different change in saying "yes" when someone orders something:

A request: Please do this right away!

A reply by a female speaker:

hote-keare1 shin1

which is equivalent to saying "Yes Sir!" or "Yes, Ma'm!"

A reply by a male speaker:

hote-keare1 kha1-mya1

When shin1 or kha1-mya1 is added at the above conversation, it sounds more polite and professional.

Yes, I am here!

Now, consider this. Someone is looking for you everywhere. He is calling out your name. If you are a male person, you may answer:

bya2 (or)

Note the 2nd tone ending mya2.

A female speaker would answer:

shin2Yes, I am here.

A Shocking Surprise

A single word:

shin2 by female, and
bya2 or
kha1-mya2 by male

is also used to utter an exclamation — to express a shocking surprise with an open-mouth.

Village head to the young man: "Young man, your parents are dead, and so are your cows. The house is gone, and you have nothing left."

Young man:

bya2 shocking surprise

followed by a long silent.

A step-mother in the poor village to her pretty step-daughter:

tha1-mi3Daughter... MP3 Audio File

she says in an afflicted tone. "For the sake of your future, we are selling you to that rich man from across the border. Pack your things now."



Pardon me! Excuse me, can say that again?

shin2Can you say that again?

bya2What did you say?

kha1-mya2Did I hear it right?

Yes, you have heard it right! There are so many different uses for simple words like

shin2 (female),

bya2 (male), and

kha1-mya2 (male).

Here, the same words could mean "Pardon me! Excuse me, can you say that again?"

Master, Master, wake up!

If you are of an equal or a higher social status, rank, or age than the person who is calling your name, you may answer in a different tone of voice:

ba2 leare3 kwa1

What? ... what's going on?

Note that there is no "male", "female" term. The ending word kwa1, as we have seen in lesson3 is an expression of excitement or delight, and can be used by both sexes.

A Knock on the door

Suppose you are in your hotel room when someone knocks on the door and calls out your name, you can say:

la2 byi2.. la2 byi2Coming... coming!

The World without You and I

It is not necessary to be using polite "male" "female" ending words all the time. In fact, it is not even necessary to include "You" and "I" in Burmese sentences.

thwa3 ome3 meare2 nau2

Got to go now! (go + indication of intention + warm feeling)

Note that in the above sentence, "I" is not explicitly stated, but implicitly implied.

First Person Male term: "kja1-nau2"

A male speaker could add "I" (male term) like this:

kja1-nau2 thwa3 ome3 meare2 nau2

Please let me be excused now.

kja1-nau2 MP3 Audio File

means "I" and is used by male speakers. In upper Myanmar, particularly in Mandalay, this term is also used by female speakers. But, it appears that this trend is catching on in Yangon. I have encountered some female speakers who use the term kja1-nau2 in Yangon.

First Person Female term: "kja1-ma1"

A female speaker could add "I" (female term)

kja1-ma1 MP3 Audio File

as follow:

kja1-ma1 thwa3 ome3 meare2 nau2

Male term of endearment: "ko2"

A husband or a boyfriend could use the term-of-endearment "I":

ko2 thwa3 ome3 meare2 nau2

Yes, parting is such sweet sorrow, that I shall say:

thwa3 ome3 meare2 nau2

till the day after tomorrow!

The use of

ko2 MP3 Audio File

is not limited to a soft whisper from a husband to a wife. It can also be used by any male person to any close friend.

Common female self-descriptive word for "I"

It is unusual for a female speaker to use

ko2 MP3 Audio File

as a self-descriptive first person pronoun "I". The reason could be that it sounds like the prefix ko2 with different spelling used in front of the names of the male person.

“The story started on that rainy day when I was enjoying a happy and wet Thingyan Festival filled with pleasing yellow Padauk flowers,” she said.

My heart beat faster when I saw those brown eyes and tender loving smile of his.

“Going home?”


“Want to go out together, then?”


“Where to?”

“Just go.”

That's how I spent the time with him — so, the lyric goes.

This talented young lady's name is Eint Chit | Ain1-Chit. She is the same girl in "Myanmar's happiest time" video clip in lesson 30 — only a little younger.

All the while, she used the word ko2 for the pronoun "I". It's almost as though she is reminiscing the story about herself to herself.

"The story started on that rainy day when I was enjoying a happy and wet Thingyan Festival filled with pleasing yellow Padauk flowers," she said. My heart beats faster when I saw those brown eyes and tender loving smile of his. Going home? No. Want to go out together, then? Yeah. Where to? Just go. That's how I spent the time with him — so, the lyric goes. This talented young lady's name is Ain1-Chit. She is the same girl in "Myanmar's Happiest Time" clip in lesson 26 — only a little younger. All the while, she used the word "KO2" for the pronoun "I". It's almost as though she is reminiscing the story about herself to herself. [40 seconds]

Posted by Naing Tinnyuntpu on Thursday, May 19, 2016

A young girl would say something like this:

tha1-mi3 thwa3 ome3 meare2 nau2


tha1-mi3 MP3 Audio File

means daughter and it is used as a pronoun in place of "I" by a young female to a person older than her. I don't know if it is a new trend or not. It seems the use of tha1-mi3 is not limited to teen-agers. Not long ago, I was taken aback to hear a woman in her 30's describing herself as tha1-mi3 to me. She addressed to me as "Uncle".

hite!Burmese Exclamation!

(English equivalent: "Gosh! She called me Uncle. Am I that old already?")

Perhaps, it's about time I do something about my graying hair. Maybe, afterwards with my new look, I can go back to her calling myself

tha3son MP3 Audio File

before she calls herself

tha1-mi3 :-)

Yes, we do grow older and older as time goes by. I think Nobel laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi must now be quite used to being addressed as a-may2 su1, where

a-may2 MP3 Audio File means mother.

I once witnessed an odd situation between a young man and woman in their early 20's. She addressed to him as

a-ko2 MP3 Audio File elder brother (used as a pronoun)

and he to her as

a-ma1 MP3 Audio File elder sister.

The conversation went on with the repeated use of a-ko2 and a-ma1. I was sitting next to them trying hard not to laugh out loud.

It is common for a female speaker to use her name in place of "I". For example, a lady named sun2-da2 would say:

sun2-da2 thwa3 ome3 meare2 nau2

to close friends and elder family members. In fact, either male or female could use his or her name in place of "I" when speaking to elder members of the family because "I" sounds too cold and impersonal.

Younger people to Older Folks

It's impolite in Myanmar culture to call elders "old man" and "old woman" in the face. But, you can bet that behind their back young people use the terms like

a-pfo3-ji3 MP3 Audio File — old man and

a-pfwa3-ji3 MP3 Audio File — old woman

to not so young people.

Old man, Old woman

It's impolite in Myanmar culture to call elders "old man" and "old woman" in the face. But, behind their back, young Myanmar people might use the terms like a-pfo3-ji3 (old man) and a-pfwa3-ji3 (old woman) to not so young people. [25 seconds]

Posted by Naing Tinnyuntpu on Saturday, May 7, 2016
Ni Ni Khin Zaw & Uranium Dancer Group

Girlfriend to boyfriend

Here is something new that I have overheard in the public place. A younger girl described herself as

kha1-lay3 MP3 Audio File

which is the direct English translation of baby to her much older boyfriend. This word also refers to a child. I, therefore, came to the logical conclusion that her boyfriend must then identify himself as


meaning "father" in private to her, but my suspicion could not be independently verified. It's hard to estimate how widespread is the usage in Myanmar as shown in this clip.

Here is something new that I have overheard in the public place. A younger girl described herself as "kha1-lay3", which is the direct English translation of baby to her much older boyfriend. This word also refers to a child. I, therefore, came to the logical conclusion that her boyfriend must then identify himself as "a-ba1" meaning "father" in private to her, but my suspicion could not be independently verified. It's hard to estimate how widespread is the usage as shown in this clip. Jenny & William [33 seconds]

Posted by Naing Tinnyuntpu on Thursday, May 26, 2016
Jenny & William

It may sound odd, but it is possible for a girl to use "he" in place of "you" when talking to a newly acquainted male. For example, instead of "What are you doing?" in 2nd person, she might say "What is he doing?" in third person. Burmese word for "he" or "she" is

thu2. MP3 Audio File

The most common terms that she will address to her boyfriend or husband in public will be


which means "big brother", or the word


followed by the name of her boyfriend or husband. Those two terms are not so special. Anybody, male or female, could address to a male person about the same age with those words in place of "you".

The special usage of "you" to a boyfriend or a husband is the word

moun2. MP3 Audio File

The closest English translation I can think of is darling or dear, but unlike "darling" or "dear", the Burmese moun2 is reserved for female to male only.

How to call your boyfriend in Burmese

How would a tough guy call himself?

As people get married for a long time, the term-of-endearment "I" could change with time to become something not so endearing.

kjoat thwa3 meare2

"I am about to go off"

says the husband. (I + go + indication of intention)

kjoat ma1-lite bu3

"I am not going with you."

says the wife. (I + not + to go along with + negative ending)

The gender-neutral use of

kjoat MP3 Audio File

as "I" was said to be first popularized by Burmese leader and politician Dr. Ba Maw (pronounced Ba1 Mau2) during World War II because he didn't want to use

kja1-nau2 MP3 Audio File "I"

which in Burmese written words roughly means self-deprecating "loyal slave". In fact, when I was young, I personally knew two grandsons of Dr. Ba Maw. One of them was the son of Bo Yan Naing, a member of famous Thirty Comrades with General Aung San as the leader. It was odd to hear them speak kjoat to each other, but I didn't know why they used the word at that time.

The word


has evolved so much with time that today it has no association with the meaning "slave", whatsoever. However, when I hear someone says

kjoat, it gives me the impression of someone tough, straight-forward, and a bit unfriendly.

Burmese equivalent of "Mister"

kha1-mya3 MP3 Audio File

also means "you", but used in a business-like environment. Although kha1-mya3 sounds professional, it's "cold", and never used by family members to address to each other.

kha1-mya3 can be used by both male and female speaker to address to a male person. the plural form is

kha1-mya3 doh1 MP3 Audio File

which is closer in feeling tone to "you people" than "you gentlemen".

Burmese Gentlemen and noble friends

The word

lu2-ji3-min3 MP3 Audio File

refers to a gentleman. You will often hear this "gentleman" message when your cellphone call cannot be reached.

In public messages, the terms

mate-hsway2 MP3 Audio Filefriend, and

mate-hsway2 doh1 MP3 Audio Filefriends are used.

The diplomatic term used to address ambassadors, presidents, and head of states is

a-hsway2-dau2 MP3 Audio File

which is equivalent to Your Excellency.

Why should I trust "you", stranger?


is only used by a female speaker to address either male or female person she is speaking to. It sounds cold and unfriendly, unlike the polite "yes" shin2 of the same sound and spelling mentioned earlier under different context.

Friendlier and more trustworthy "you"

When you get to know a person better, you call him or her by the title followed by the name of the person. For example, you say:

“How is it going ko2 zau2-wun3 ?” to a person named Zaw One.

ko2 is the title to address a male of the same age or older.

moun2 is the title to address a younger male.

u3 is the title to address an elder male.

ma1 is the title to address a female who is younger or of the same age.

dau2 is the title to address an older female.

I consider "you" like a close relative

It is common for Burmese people to use the terms "young brother", "elder brother", "young sister", "elder sister", "big uncle", "big aunt", "grandpa", "grandma", etc., in place of "you" and "I" to any stranger, especially if you don't know the name of the person.

"What's up, brother?" — Did I hear an African-American speak?

beare2 leare3 a-ko2

Go where, big brother?

a greeting as you meet someone a bit older than you are. (where + ? + elder brother)

nyi2-lay3.. ku2 ba2 ome3 MP3 Audio File

Could you help me please, young brother?

(younger brother + help + "do as such" suggestion)

sa3 ba2 ome3 a-ba1 MP3 Audio File Please won't you have some, grandpa?

(eat + "do as such" suggestion + grandpa)

a-dau2-ji3, da2 beare2-lout leare3 MP3 Audio File

Big Aunty, how much is this?

(aunt+ big + this + how much + ?)

"You" naive girl

Sometimes an elder person would say

nyi3 MP3 Audio File

a version of "you" to a younger female in a disagreement or in a lecturing tone. In my opinion, it's a bit derogatory and somewhat carries the meaning: "You naive, ignorant small girl."

I am uncle and you are moun2-yin2

moun2-yin2 MP3 Audio File

is the term spoken by the elder man to the younger man. You can translate it as "young man" or "lad". This word is not often used. The more common usage today is

tha3 MP3 Audio File

meaning "son" mentioned earlier.

Hey, kid!

The word

cha2-tate MP3 Audio File

is like calling someone a kid. This word could be used by kids (sometimes in a bullying tone) to even younger kids. Cha2-tate refers to a boy.

cha2-tate ma1 lay3 MP3 Audio File

means a girl. If the girl is a little older from the teenage upwards to the 20's, the word

koun2-ma1 lay3 MP3 Audio Fileyoung woman is used. The male term is

koun lay3, MP3 Audio File meaning young man.


Younger generation of both sexes use the word "friend" in the conversation, especially to classmates.

tha1-ngeare2-jin3, I wish you well.

What's up "dude"?

Among friends,

min3 MP3 Audio File

is used to say "you" in an informal way.

min3 doh1 MP3 Audio File

is a plural for "you" meaning you guys or you people.


nin2 MP3 Audio File

is also used among friends. In Mandarin Chinese, "nin" in Pinyin second tone is a polite term to say "you". In Burmese it is not polite to say


to someone older than you are.

nin2 doh1 MP3 Audio File

just like

min3 doh1

is an another informal word for "you guys".

min3 ba2 loat nay2 leare3 MP3 Audio File

What are you doing?

(You + what + do + present participle [~ing] + ?)

min3 doh1 ba2 loat nay2 ja1 leare3 MP3 Audio File

What are you guys doing?

(you guys + what + do + present participle [~ing] + plural + ?)

Note the use of ja1 for plural of people. Please review lesson 2 for the use of ja1.

nga2 MP3 Audio File

is an informal word used among friends to say "I". It is rude to say


to strangers or to elders.

nga2 doh1 MP3 Audio File

means we.

You may be wondering how to pronounce nga2. "nga2" sounds just like saying "ng" part at the end of the word "sing" with the back of the tongue raised, momentarily touched the upper back part of the mouth and released. The tongue should be further back compared to saying "ga2".

nga2 ma1-thi1 bu3

I don't know!

(I + not + know + negative ending)

Add "doh1" for plural form of people

Back in lesson 2, we have seen:

beare2 dthu2 leare3 MP3 Audio FileWho?

(which + person + ?)

thu2 beare3 MP3 Audio FileThat's him! (he + exactly!)

thu2 MP3 Audio File

means he or she. How would you make it a plural to mean "they", "them"? Easy. Just add

doh1 MP3 Audio File

like "you" and "I" above.


thu2 doh1 beare2 hma2 leare3

Where are they? (they + where + location indicator + ?)


nga2 ma1-thi1 bu3

I don't know!

Only slight tone difference between "I" and "my"

ma1-thi1 MP3 Audio File

means "don't know". This word cannot be used independently, but must be followed by an another word. Usually, it is followed by negative ending

bu3. MP3 Audio File

na2-yi2 beare2 hma2 leare3 MP3 Audio File

Where's the watch?

(watch + where + location indicator + ?)

kja1-nau2 ma1-thi1 bu3 MP3 Audio File

I (male polite term) don't know!

kja1-nau1 na2-yi2 beare2 hma2 leare3 MP3 Audio File

Where's my (male polite term) watch?

kja1-ma1 ma1-thi1 bu3 MP3 Audio File

I ( female polite term ) don't know!

Observe the tone difference carefully:

kja1-nau2I (male)

kja1-nau1my (male)

thu2"he" or "she"

thu1"his" or "her"

When the tone is changed to the 1st., it becomes possessive. For female, "I" is already in the 1st tone, so there's no need to change it:

kja1-ma1I (female) MP3 Audio File

kja1-ma1my (female) MP3 Audio File

Similarly, there is no change in tone from "they" to "theirs".

thu2 doh1they; them MP3 Audio File

thu2 doh1theirs MP3 Audio File

kja1-nau1 tha1-mi3 MP3 Audio File "My daughter,"

says the man proudly to a friend.

kja1-ma1 tha3 MP3 Audio File

"My son"

da2 kja1-ma1 tha3 beare3 MP3 Audio File

"That's the son I am talking about," she says.

(this + "my" female term + son + exactly!)

da2 thu1 tha3 beare3 MP3 Audio File

That's his (or her) son.

da2 thu1 tha3 lay2 MP3 Audio File

That's his (or) her son, don't you know?

Au2.. hote la3 MP3 Audio File"Oh, is that so?"

It is closer to "Oh, I see.." follow-up comment. (Oh + Yes + ?)

I think I have covered all the variations of "You" and "I" that you will ever encounter in the conversation, and also about "him" and "their" comments. So,

kine3, kine3, kine3... MP3 Audio File — OK, OK, enough, enough, enough...

kja1-nau2 MP3 Audio File — I

de2 hma2 MP3 Audio File — here

yut meare2 MP3 Audio File — stop + going to

kine3, kine3, kine3... kja1-nau2 de2 hma2 yut meare2 MP3 Audio File

Ok, that's enough! I will stop here.