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Color Codes: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, particles, postpositional markers, interjections.

Naing Tinnyuntpu Naing Tinnyuntpu is no stranger to systematic and efficient approach. He came from manufacturing environment with Bachelor's and Master's in Industrial Engineering (USA).

His contributions to the semiconductor industry included techniques recognized by Sematech as ‘Administrative Quality Best Practices’ during his process engineering days with now defunct IC chip making division of Hewlett-Packard in Singapore.

Born and raised in Yangon, he has lived in six countries and knowledgeable in unrelated areas including self-taught programming languages. His free online Burmese lessons serve as an effective communication bridge that connects international community with ordinary Myanmar people.

CLICK (OR TOUCH) TABLE HEADER COLUMNS TO SORT BY ASCENDING OR DESCENDING ORDER OF ENGLISH OR BURMESE SCRIPT.

List of Fruits (Sortable) | သစ်သီးဝလံ | thit-thi3 wa1-lun2
ENGLISH ↑↓ AUDIO ↑↓
Apple ပန်းသီး | pan3 dthi3
Asian Pear သစ်တော်သီး | thit-tau2 dthi3
Avocado ထောပတ်သီး | htau3-but dthi3
Bael fruit / Stone Apple ဥသျှစ်သီး | oat-shit thi3
Banana ငှက်ပျောသီး | nga1-pyau3 thi3
Carambola / Star Fruit စောင်းလျားသီး | zoun3-lya3 dthi3
Country Fig ကတွတ်သီး | ga1-doot thi3
Custard Apple ဩဇာသီး | au3-za2 dthi3
Coconut အုန်းသီး | ome3 dthi3
Damson မက်မန်းသီး | met-mun3 thi3
Dates စွန်ပလွံသီး | soon2-ba1-loon2 dthi3
Durian ဒူးရင်းသီး | du3-yin3 dthi3
Fig သဖန်းသီး | tha1-pfun3 dthi3
Grapes စပျစ်သီး | za1-byit thi3
Grapefruit / Pomelo ကျွဲကောသီး | kjweare3-gau3 dthi3
Guava မာလကာသီး | ma2-la1-ka2 thi3
Hog Plum ခွေးချိုသီး | gway3-jo2 dthi3
Jackfruit ပိန္နဲသီး | pain3-neare3 dthi3
Lychee လိုက်ချီး | lite-chi3
Malay Rose Apple နှင်းသီး | hnin3 dthi3
Mango သရက်သီး | tha1-yet thi3
Mangosteen မင်းကွတ်သီး | min3-goot dthi3
Marian မရမ်းသီး | ma1-yan3 dthi3
Morinda ရဲယိုသီး | yeare3-yo2 dthi3
Muskmelon / honeydew သခွားမွှေးသီး | tha1-khwa3-hmway3 dthi3
Myanmar Grapes ကနစိုသီး | ka1-na1-so2 dthi3
Orange လိမ္မော်သီး | lain2-mau2 dthi3
Papaya သင်္ဘောသီး | thin3-bau3 dthi3
Passion fruit ပင်မှည့်သီး | pin2-hmeare1-thi3
Peach မက်မွန်သီး | met-moon2 dthi3
Persimmon တည်သီး | teare2 dthi3
Pineapple နာနတ်သီး | na2-nut thi3
Plum ဆီးသီး | zi3 dthi3
Pomegranate သလဲသီး | tha1-leare3 dthi3
Rambutan ကြက်မောက်သီး | kjet-mout thi3
Strawberry စတော်ဘယ်ရီ | sa1-tau2 beare2-ri2
Water Chestnut ကျွဲခေါင်းသီး | kjweare3-goun3 dthi3
Watermelon ဖရဲသီး | pfa1-yeare3 dthi3
Poultry, Beef, Pork, Mutton & Seafood (Sortable) | အသား ၊ ငါး | a-tha3 nga3
ENGLISH ↑↓ AUDIO ↑↓
Beef အမဲသား | a-meare3 dtha3
Carp ငါးမြစ်ချင်း | nga1-myit-chin3
Catfish ငါးခူ | nga1-khu2
Catfish (small) ငါးကျည်း | nga1-ji3
Caviar (salted roe) ငါးဥ | nga3 u1
Chicken ကြက်သား | kjet tha3
Clam ခုံးကောင် | khone3 goun2
Congereel ငါးရွှေ | nga1-shway2
Crab ကဏန်း | ga1-nun3
Cuttlefish ကင်းမွန် | kin3-moon2
Duck ဘဲသား | beare3 dtha3
Eel ငါးရှဉ့် | nga1-shin1
Featherback ငါးဖယ် | nga1-pfeare2
Fish ငါး | nga3
Garfish ငါးဖောင်ရိုး | nga1-pfoun2-yo3
Globe Fish ငါးပူတင်း | nga1-pu2-din3
Goose ဘဲငန်း | beare3 ngan3
Intestine အူ | u2
Hamilton's Carp ငါးကြင်း | nga1-jin3
Hilsa ငါးသလောက် | nga1-tha1-lout
Prawn ပုစွန် | ba1-zoon2
Liver, heart, gizzard အသည်းအမြစ် | a-theare3 a-myit
Loach ငါးသလဲထိုး | nga1-tha1-leare3 hto3
Lobster ပုစွန်တုပ် | ba1-zoon2 doat
Mackerel ငါးကွမ်းရှပ် | nga1-koon3-shut
Mutton ဆိတ်သား | hsate tha3
Oyster ကမာ | ka1-ma2
Perch ကကတစ် | kut-ka1-dit
Pomfret ငါးမုတ် | nga1-moat
Pork ဝက်သား | wet tha3
Red-eyed gudgeon ငါးကြင်းမျက်ဆံနီ | nga1-jin3 myet-hsun2-ni2
Roe ငါးဥ | nga3 u1
Salmon ပင်လယ်ငါးသလောက် | pin2-leare2 nga1-tha1-lout
Sardine ငါးသေတ္တာငါး | nga3-thit-ta2 nga3
Shrimp ပုစွန်ဆိတ် | ba1-zoon2 zate
Snakehead fish ငါးရံ့ | nga1-yun1
Squid ပြည်ကြီးငါး | pyi2-ji3 nga3
Star fish ကြယ်ငါး | kjeare2 nga3
Tuna fish ငါးမဲလုံး | nga1-meare3-lone3
Venison ဆတ်သား | hsut tha3
List of Vegetables and Roots (Sortable) | ဟင်းသီးဟင်းရွက် | hin3-dthi3 hin3-ywet
ENGLISH ↑↓ AUDIO ↑↓
Arrowroot အာဒါလွတ်သီး | ah2-da2-loot thi3
Asparagus ကညွတ် | ka1-nyoot
Bamboo shoots မျှစ် | hmyit
Basil ပင်စိမ်း | pin2 zain3
Bean sprouts ပဲပင်ပေါက် | peare3 pin2-bout
Bell pepper ငရုတ်ပွ | nga1-yoat bwa1
Bitter Melon/ Bitter Gourd ကြက်ဟင်းခါးသီး | kjet-hin3-ga3 dthi3
Bok Choy မုန်ညင်းဖြူ | mone2-nyin3 byu2
Broccoli ပန်းဂေါ်ဖီစိန်း | pan3-gau2-be2 zain3
Cabbage ဂေါ်ဖီထုပ် | gau2-be2 doat
Carrot (red) မုန်လာဥနီ | mone2-la2-u1 ni2
Carrot (white) / radish မုန်လာဥဖြူ | mone2-la2-u1 byu2
Cauliflower ပန်းဂေါ်ဖီ | pan3 gau2-be2
Celery Stalk တရုတ်နံနံ | ta1-yoat nun2-nun2
Chayote ဂေါ်ရခါးသီး | gau2-ra1-kha3 dthi3
Chilli ငရုတ်သီး | nga1-yoat thi3
Cilantro / Parsley / Coriander နံနံပင် | nun2-nun2 bin2
Concinna leaves ဆူးပုပ်ရွက် | hsu3-boat ywet
Corn / maize ပြောင်းဖူး | pyoun3 bu3
Cucumber သခွားသီး | tha1-khwa3 dthi3
Djenkol bean တညင်းသီး | da1-nyin3 dthi3
Drum stick; Moringa oleifera ဒန့်သလွန်သီး | dun1-dtha1-loon2 dthi3
Eggplant/ Brinjal/ Aubergine ခရမ်းသီး | kha1-yan3 dthi3
Green pepper (larger, longer, and less hot) ငရုတ်ချို | nga1-yoat cho2
Kailan / Gailan ကိုက်လန် | kite-lun2
Lady's finger / Okra ရုံးပတီသီး | yone3-ba1-day2 dthi3
Lettuce ဆလတ်ရွက် | hsa1-lut ywet
Marrow ကျောက်ဖရုံသီး | kjout pfa1-yone2 dthi3
Melon / Gourd ဘူးသီး | bu3 dthi3
Mint ပူဒီနာ (ပူစီနံ) | pu2-di2-na2 (pu2-si2-nun2)
Mushroom မှို | hmo2
Mustard greens မုန်ညင်း | mone2-nyin3
Pennywort မြင်းခွာရွက် | myin3-khwa2 ywet
Pumpkin ရွှေဖရုံသီး | shway2-pfa1-yone2 dthi3
Ridged gourd ခဝဲသီး | kha1-weare3 dthi3
Roselle ချဉ်ပေါင် | chin2-boun2
Snake Gourd ပုံလုံသီး | bone2-lone2 dthi3
Spinach ဟင်းနုနယ် | hin3 nu1-neare2
Spring Onion / Leek ကြက်သွန်မြိတ် | kjet-thoon2-mate
Sweet Potato ကန်စွန်းဥ | ga1-zoon3 u1
Tamarind leaves မန်ကျည်းရွက် | ma1-ji3 ywet
Tomato ခရမ်းချဉ်သီး | kha1-yan3-jin2 dthi3
Taro ပိန်းဥ | pain3 u1
Water-crest(Kang Kong) ကန်စွန်းရွက် | ga1-zoon3 ywet
List of Seeds and Nuts (Sortable) | ခွံမာသီး | khoon2-ma2 dthi3
ENGLISH ↑↓ AUDIO ↑↓
Cashew nut သီဟိုဠ်စေ့ | thi2-ho2 zi1
Chestnut သစ်ချသီး | thit-cha1 dthi3
Indian almond ဗာဒံသီး (ဗာဒံစေ့) | ba2-dun2-= dthi3 (ba2-dun2 zi1)
Peanut မြေပဲ | myay2 beare3
Sunflower seed နေကြာစေ့ | nay2-kja2 zi1
Walnut သစ်ကြားသီး | thit-kja3 thi3
Water-melon seed ကွာစိ | kwa2 si1
Rice, Bean, Staples, Cooking Ingredients & Spices (Sortable) | ဆန် ၊ ဆီ၊ ဆား | hsun2, hsi2, hsa3
ENGLISH ↑↓ AUDIO ↑↓
Aniseed စမုန်စပါး | sa1-mone2 za1-ba3
Baking powder ဆော်ဒါ | hsau2-da2
Basil ပင်စိန်း | pin2-zain3
Bay leaf ကရဝေးရွက် | ka1-ra1-way3 ywet
Bean ပဲ | peare3
Black cumin စမုန်နက် | sa1-mone2 net
Cardamom seed ဖာလာစေ့ | pfa2-la2 zi1
Chilli powder ငရုတ်သီးမှုန့် | nga1-yoat-thi3 hmome1
Chilli sauce ငရုတ်ဆီ | nga1-yoat hsi2
Cinnamon သစ်ကြံပိုးခေါက် | thit-ja1-bo3 khout
Clove လေးညှင်းပွင့် | lay3-hnyin3 bwin1
Coconut milk အုန်းနို့ | ome3 no1
Cooking oil ဆီ | hsi2
Cumin ဇီရာ | zi2-ya2
Curry powder မဆလာ | ma1-hsa1-la2
Dried Shrimp ပုစွန်ခြောက် | ba1-zoon2 jout
Eggs ကြက်ဥ | kjet u1
Fennel စမုန်စပါး | sa1-mone2 za1-ba3
Fish sauce ငံပြာရည် | ngan2-bya2 yay2
Five-spiced powder တရုတ်မဆလာ | ta1-yoat ma1-hsa1-la2
Flour (wheat) ဂျုံမှုန့် | jone2 hmone1
Garlic ကြက်သွန်ဖြူ | kjet-thoon2 byu2
Ginger ချင်း | jin3
Gram ကုလားပဲ | ka1-la1-beare3
Lemon grass စပါးလင် | za1-ba1-lin2
Lemon leaf ရှောက်ရွက် | shout ywet
Lentil ပဲနီလေး | peare3-ni2 lay3
MSG အချိုမှုန့် | a-cho2 hmone1
Olive oil သံလွင်ဆီ | thun2-lwin2 zi2
Onion ကြက်သွန်နီ | kjet-thoon2 ni2
Oyster sauce ခရုဆီ | kha1-yu1 zi2
Palm oil စားအုန်းဆီ | sa3 ome3-zi2
Pea flour ပဲမှုန့် | peare3 hmone1
Peanut oil မြေပဲဆီ | myay2-beare3 zi2
Pepper ငရုတ်ကောင်း | nga1-yoat-goun3
Potato အာလူး | ah2-lu3
Rice ဆန် | hsun2
Rice flour ဆန်မှုန့် | hsun2 hmone1
Salt ဆား | hsa3
Seasoning powder ကြက်သားမှုန့် | kjet-tha3 hmone1
Seaweed ကျောက်ပွင့် | kjout-pwin1
Sesame oil နှမ်းဆီ | hnun3 zi2
Soya Sauce (thick) ကြာညို့ | kja2-nyo1
Soya Sauce (thin) ပဲငံပြာရည် | peare3 ngan2-bya2-yay2
Spices ဟင်းခတ်အမွှေးအကြိုင် | hin3-khut a-hmway3 a-kjine2
Tapioca powder ပီလောပီနံမှုန့် | pa1-lau3-pi2-nun2 hmone1
Tumeric နနွင်း| hsa1-nwin3 (spelled as na1 nwin3)
Vinegar ရှလကာရည် | sha2-la1-ka2 yay2

Lesson 16: Buying Meat, Fish, Fruits, Vegetables, Eggs & Bread

If you decide to live in Yangon for an extended period like a number of foreign businessmen, sooner or later you will need to do some grocery shopping on your own. There are a number of supermarkets in Yangon like Ocean Supermarket, City Mart, and AEON Orange where you don't need to speak anything. However, if those supermarkets are not in the vicinity of your home, it will be much more convenient to rely on your neighborhood shops and markets to buy fresh fruits, meat, vegetables, bread and eggs.

City Mart Supermarket in Yangon

The Burmese word for market is

ဈေး | zay3. MP3 Audio File

If you can't go to zay3, then it will come to you. In many residential areas, the sellers go around the neighborhood with a big basket of meat, fish, and chicken balanced over their heads. Some fruits and vegetables sellers use trolley carts to push around the streets and cry out what they are selling using their trademark sales pitch.

You may not always understand what they are shouting even if you know some Burmese. Even Burmese like me sometimes don't know what they are shouting. In one case, I heard someone selling

ကဏန်းတွေ . . . ကဏန်းတွေ | ga1-nun3 dway2.. ga1-nun2 dway2..

I ran out to catch the seller expecting some fresh or cooked crabs but it turned out to be the print out results of the state lottery.

ဂဏန်း | Ga1-nun3 with different spelling in Burmese means "numbers".

If you don't know what's inside the basket, just ask:

ဘာ | ba2 - What

ပါ | pa2 - accompany

လဲ | leare3 - ?

ဘာပါလဲ

ba2 pa2 leare3

What are you carrying? What do you have there?

(what + accompany + ?)

The respond will be something like:

ကြက်သားပါတယ်

kjet tha3 pa2 deare2...

I have chicken... (chicken + accompany + affirmation)

ငါးပါတယ်

nga3 pa2 deare2...

I have fish... (fish + accompany + affirmation)

ဝက်သားပါတယ်

wet tha3 pa2 deare2...

I have pork... (pork + accompany + affirmation)

You may still not understand the person if you have a limited vocabulary. Don't worry. Just say:

ကြည့်ချင်တယ်

kji1 chin2 deare2

Let me have a look. (look + want + affirmation)

ကြည့် | kji1 means "to look".

ကြည့်ချင် | kji1 chin2 is the desire to look.

ကြည့်ချင်တယ် | kji1 chin2 deare2 can also be translated as "I want to look." But, the feeling tone is not so blunt as such. It's more like, "Let me have a look."

The seller will put the basket down and you can take a look what's inside. If whatever inside is not what you want, say:

| ma1 - negative (particle)

ဝယ် | weare2 - buy (verb)

သေး | thay3 - yet to be (particle)

ဘူး | bu3 - negative ending (particle)

မဝယ်သေးဘူး

ma1-weare2 thay3 bu3

Not buying this time.

(negative + buy + yet to be + negative ending)

If you are interested, the next logical step is to ask the price:

ဘယ်လိုရောင်းသလဲ

beare2 lo2 youn3 dtha1-leare3

How much are you selling? (How + sell + ?)

or, simply ask:

ဘယ်လောက်လဲ

beare2 lout leare3How much?

Weight & Measurements

How much are you selling?

In supermarkets, kilogram is used to measure weight for meat, cooked food, fruits and other food stuff such as bags of rice. The local weight scale used in neighborhood shops and markets is called

ပိဿာ | pate-tha2 MP3 Audio File — viss, which is divided into 100

ကျပ်သား | kjut-tha3 MP3 Audio File — ticals.

If you buy

တစ်ပိဿာ | da1-bate-tha2 MP3 Audio File — one viss

of meat, you will get about 3.6 lb (1.6 kg), which is simply too much for a typical Burmese family who buys fresh vegetables, fish or meat almost every day. if you ask:

ဘယ်လိုရောင်းသလဲ

beare2 lo2 youn3 dtha1-leare3 MP3 Audio File — how much are you selling ?

the seller will reply you in terms of

ကျပ်သား | kjut-tha3, which is shortened as

သား | tha3.

Example:

အမဲသား ဘယ်လိုရောင်းသလဲ

a-meare3-dtha3 beare2 lo2 youn3 dtha1-leare3

How much do you sell the beef?

(beef + how + sell + ?)

၆၀၀ | chout-ya2600

Updates: 10 သား | tha3 of beef that cost 600 Kyat in 2012 shot up to 900 Kyat in December 2014, 1000 kyat in June 2015, and remained the same as of July 2016 in Yangon.

The price of chicken relative to beef and pork came down and cost about 700 Kyat. Pork, depending on which part, cost around 700 to 900 on the average in July 2016. The meat part without fat was around 1100 Kyat and spare ribs were 550 Kyat. The premium spare ribs with soft bones were expensive and ordered by hotels and restaurants in advance, so you would not find it in the market.

Despite the inflation which went past 8.5% in mid 2019, the price of chicken remained stable and cost about the same as in 2016.
Myanmar Grammar Notes: Question words such as ဘယ်လို | beare2 lo2 and ဘယ်လောက် | beare2 lout can be either pronoun or adjective depending on the sentence. In the above question, ဘယ်လို | beare2 lo2 is a clear reference to အမဲသား | a-meare3-dtha3 (noun) so, it is an adjective. If the word ဒါ | da2 - pronoun "this" is used in place of beef, ဘယ်လို | beare2 lo2 becomes a pronoun.

You will get the same answer if you ask:

(၁၀)သား ဘယ်လောက်လဲ

ta1-hseare2 dtha3 beare2 lout leare3

How much for 10 သား | tha3 ?

(10 + ticals + how much + ?)

Sometimes, you may hear the word ပါ | ba2 appended to the answer to soften the tone.

(၆၀၀)ပါ | chout ya2 ba2Oh, it's 600.

Please refer to Lesson 2 for the use of the word "ba2".

Unlike in the supermarkets, fruits and some vegetables in neighborhood markets are sold in quantity, bunches, or in bundles.

Examples:

သရက်သီး ဘယ်လိုရောင်းသလဲ

tha1-yet thi3 beare2 lo2 youn3 dtha1-leare3

How much do you sell the mangoes?

(mango + how + sell + ?)

(၃)လုံး (၁၀၀၀)

thone3 lone3 ta1-htoun2

3 for 1,000. (3 + unit for fruits + 1 + thousand)

Updates: The price of mangoes as of June 2015 cost about the same as they were in 2012. The more expensive export (to China) variety called စိန်တစ်လုံး | sain2 ta1-lone3 were sold 3 for 2000 Kyat in 2016 rainy season and 800 in 2019.

ကြက်ဥ ဘယ်လိုရောင်းသလဲ

kjet u1 beare2 lo2 youn3 dtha1-leare3

How much do you sell the eggs ?

(chicken + egg + how + sell + ?)

တစ်လုံး (၁၀၀) ပါ

ta1-lone3 ta1-ya2 ba2

1 for 100. (1 + unit for eggs + 1 + hundred)

Updates: The price of an egg (medium to large size) as of June 2015 cost around 120 Kyat and remained stable at this price in July 2016 while duck eggs were sold 150 Kyat each. In early 2019, the value of 1000 Kyat was worth 6 chicken eggs.
Myanmar Grammar Notes: တစ်လုံး | ta1-lone3 refers to the quantity of eggs without mentioning the word "egg" (noun) so, it is a pronoun. On the other hand, တစ်လုံး | ta1-lone3 in ကြက်ဥတစ်လုံး | kjet u1 ta1-lone3 is an adjective.

မုန်ညင်း ဘယ်လိုရောင်းသလဲ

mone2-nyin3 beare2 lo2 youn3 dtha1-leare3

How much do you sell the mustard greens?

(mustard greens + how + sell + ?)

(၃)စည်း (၂၀၀) ပါ

thone3-zi3 hna1-ya2 ba2

Oh, its 200 for 3 bundles.

(3 + bundles + 2 + hundred + polite ending word)

2015 Updates: The prices of some vegetables such as watercress, spinach, green pepper, cucumber, and tomatoes are relatively stable and abundantly available. But, there appear to be less amount in the size of the bundle.

2016 Updates: Roselles ချဉ်ပေါင် | (chin2-boun2) are most affordable with 50 Kyat a bundle, while watercress ကန်စွန်းရွက် | (ga1-zoon3 ywet) are fresh and abundant at 100 Kyat a bundle. Djenkol bean တညင်းသီး | (da1-nyin3-dthi3) is 50 each. Those three are luxury items for Overseas Burmese people who are dying to have those, and pay high price in some other countries if available at all.

2019 Updates: Mustard greens are 100 for 1 bundle.

Although the phrase:

ဘယ်လိုရောင်းသလဲ

beare2 lo2 youn3 dtha1-leare3

sounds more colloquial for an item that the seller can mark up the price and sell it as he or she wishes, the phrase

ဘယ်လောက်လဲ | beare2 lout leare3How much?

sounds more natural for items with more or less fixed prices, such as bread that is distributed by the wholesaler.

ပေါင်မုန့်ဘယ်လောက်လဲ

poun2-mone1 beare2 lout leare3

How much is bread ? (bread + how much + ?)

How much for any item?

If you don't know the name of the item or its measure word (unit) in Burmese, there is an easy way out:

ဒါဘယ်လောက်လဲ

da2 beare2 lout leare3

How much is this? (this + how much + ?)

Poultry, Beef, Pork, & Seafood

You are almost certain to get

ငါး | nga3 MP3 Audio Filefish

everyday from the neighborhood shops and sellers who go around the residential areas. In special occasions, Burmese people

ပေါင်း | poun3 | steam

ငါးသလောက် | nga1-tha1-lout | hilsa fish

for several hours until bones are tender and can be eaten. If you want to try out the taste of

ငါးသလောက်ပေါင်း | nga1-tha1-lout poun3 MP3 Audio Filesteamed hilsa

you can buy it in the canned food sections of the supermarkets (and even in neighborhood shops) on the same shelves as tuna and sardine.

Hilsa is found in the rivers of Myanmar and Bangladesh. It is oily and somewhat like Salmon. Polyunsaturated fatty acids found in Hilsa is healthful for human consumption just like Salmon fish. Contrary to popular Burmese belief, a study has shown that eating Hilsa will not increase the blood pressure (because its oily) , but will reduce the cholesterol level. Here's a link:

ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7880151

Average Burmese will be familiar with

ငါးသေတ္တာ | nga3-thit-ta2 nga3 MP3 Audio Filesardine

both fresh and in tin cans, but imported tuna is much more expensive, and can only be bought in tin cans.

Some Burmese Buddhists avoid taking

အမဲသား | a-meare3-dtha3 MP3 Audio Filebeef,

which is probably an Indian Hindu tradition. Another reason could be that for generations, cows and bulls are used in the fields for growing crops and for transportation that they are considered

ကျေးဇူးရှင် | kjay3-zu3 shin2

(someone or something to be thankful for.)

ပုစွန် | ba1-zoon2 MP3 Audio Fileprawns

and smaller

ပုစွန်ဆိတ် | ba1-zoon2 zate MP3 Audio Fileshrimps

are abundant in Myanmar, and you can get those fresh from the markets. There are shrimp farms in Myanmar, but since shrimp farming is a lucrative business for export with more profits, fresh seafood you get from the local markets are most likely from the rivers and coastal areas caught by the fishing boats.

ဘဲသား | beare3-dtha3 | duck MP3 Audio File

is less common than

ကြက်သား | kjet tha3 MP3 Audio Filechicken

and they are often bony. However, you can easily get

ဘဲဥ | beare3 u1 MP3 Audio Fileduck eggs

which the Burmese use for cooking

မုန့်ဟင်းခါး | mone1-hin3-ga3 MP3 Audio File — Burmese favorite for breakfast with rice noodle in fish gravy.

If you have craving for Chinese Peking roasted ducks, the best is to go to restaurants like Golden Duck where you can get ducks with more meat than bones.

There are two types of

ကြက် | kjet | chicken. MP3 Audio File

The first type is grown in big chicken farms and those come in the same size as in Western countries. Those big size chicken are called

မွေးမြူရေးကြက် | mway3-myu2-yay3 kjet MP3 Audio Filepoultry farm chicken.

Second type is

ဗမာကြက် | ba1-ma2 kjet MP3 Audio FileBurmese chicken

preferred by some people for its "sweet" taste.

The first type for big farm chicken is better known as

PC ကြက် | PC kjet, which by the way, is fried and barbecued chicken franchise brand name called "PC" from Thailand with outlets all over the places.

There is a Burmese saying: When it comes to meat, pork is the best; for fruit, mango is the one; pickled-tea is chosen among the leaves.

ဝက်သား | wet tha3 MP3 Audio Filepork

is sold in different prices. The most expensive part is meat only without any fat. But, the price difference is not that substantial.

Interestingly, some Burmese also avoid taking pork just like Muslims. When I was young, for example, you could not bring pork to Mount Popa because local people believed that certain Nats (supernatural beings) like ဗျတ္တ | byut-ta1 who was a Muslim seaman executed by King အနော်ရထာ | A-nau2-ra1-hta2 disapproved of it. I am not sure if this custom has changed, but it does make sense to avoid animal fats for health reasons.

Fruits & Seasons

Fruit seller in Yangon

Myanmar has three seasons. The cooler "tourist" season is from October to March when nights are pleasantly cooler than hot summer months from April to about June. You can expect heavy rains and thunder storms from June to September. The rain seems to be heaviest around July, and then tapered off towards the end of October.

You can get

စတော်ဘယ်ရီ | sa1-tau2-beare2-ri2 MP3 Audio Filestrawberry

စပျစ်သီး | za1-byit thi3 MP3 Audio Filegrapes

ပန်းသီး | pan3 dthi3 MP3 Audio Fileapples

ကျွဲကောသီး | kjweare3-gau3 dthi3 MP3 Audio Filegrapefruits

and

လိုက်ချီး | lite-chi3 MP3 Audio Filelychee

grown in highland regions during those "tourist" seasons when the temperature could drop below freezing point in some parts of the country.

Around Christmas to Chinese New Year, you can get oranges and tangerines of different sizes, types, and names.

If you visit Myanmar during the rainy season, you can eat

သရက်သီး | tha1-yet thi3 MP3 Audio Filemangoes

all you want, and they are not expensive like in the US or Canada. You can also get durians during summer till the end of the year. Rainy season is the season of fruits when you can have your stomach filled with

နာနတ်သီး | na2-nut thi3 MP3 Audio Filepineapples

မင်းကွတ်သီး | min3-goot dthi3 MP3 Audio Filemangosteen

ဩဇာသီး | au3-za2 dthi3 MP3 Audio Filecustard apples

မက်မွန်သီး | met-moon2 dthi3 MP3 Audio Filepeaches

သစ်တော်သီး | thit-tau2 thi3 MP3 Audio FileAsian pears

မာလကာသီး | ma2-la1-ka2 dthi3 MP3 Audio Fileguavas

ပိန္နဲသီး | pain3-neare3 dthi3 MP3 Audio Filejack fruits

ဆီးသီး | zi3 dthi3 MP3 Audio Fileplums

and

ကြက်မောက်သီး | kjet-mout thi3 MP3 Audio Filerambutans.

There seems to be two seasons for

ဖရဲသီး | pfa1-yeare3 dthi3 MP3 Audio Filewater melons.

You can get it in the summer till the start of rainy season, and again around October to December.

You can get papayas and bananas in all seasons. Bananas are sold by the bunch. In some small roadside shops, you can buy just one or two bananas if you don't want the whole bunch.

Grapes and a type of small size oranges called

ပျားလိမ္မော် | pya3 lain2 mau2 MP3 Audio File are weighed, and strawberries are sold by the basket or in plastic containers. Bigger fruits like durians, and pineapples are sold by a single quantity, whereas mangoes are sold in either single quantity or in the quantity of 3 or 5.

Grocery Items and Cooking Ingredients

You can get eggs, bread and grocery items in neighborhood shops and corner stores. But, be sure to stock up enough food (especially bread) before သင်္ကြန် | thin3-jan2 (water festival) and Burmese New Year in mid April. Shops will be opened for limited hours if not closed for a few days. Also beware of price hike ups for items like fish and meat just before the shut down.

Rice, Cooking Oil and Soya Sauce in Burmese

Smaller Change

It must have been a long, long time since Burmese people last used coins. In the past, ကျပ် | kyat (pronounced kjut with silent "t") was divided into 100 pya (pronounced ပြား | pya3.) Pyas were coins, such as 5 pya, 10 pya, 25 pya, and 50 pya coins.

Due to inflation that had shot up several folds in the 1980's, the smallest denomination you see today are 5 kyat notes, and 10 kyat notes. They are sometimes stapled together in 50 kyat amount; only then they become a meaningful amount to buy anything at all, or to return as a small change. As of 2014, even those have disappeared, and the smallest note you see is 50 kyat note.

Burmese kyat notes in the denominations of 50 kyat, 100 kyat, and 200 kyat notes are considered small changes, and called

အကြွေ | a-kjway2. MP3 Audio File

Those small notes used to be notoriously dirty, worn-out and in sorry conditions, but in the year 2011, the government banks have started to replace those with newly printed notes.

Shopkeeper to the customer:

အကြွေပါလား

a-kjway2 pa2 la3

Do you have small change with you?

(small change + accompany + ?)

Customer to vegetables seller:

အကြွေအမ်းိနုင်လား

a-kjway2 un3 nine2 la3

Are you able to return change?

(small change + to return change + able to + ?)

Here's how the question of small change should be answered:

အကြွေပါတယ်

a-kjway2 pa2 deare2

I have small change.

(small change + accompany + affirmative)

အကြွေမပါဘူး

a-kjway2 ma1-pa2 bu3

I didn't bring any change.

(small change + not + accompany + negative ending)

အကြွေမရှိဘူး

a-kjway2 ma1-shi1 bu3

I don't have any change.

(small change + not + present + negative ending)

အကြွေမအမ်းနိုင်ဘူး

a-kjway2 ma1-un3 nine2 bu3

I cannot return small change.

(small change + not + to return change + able to + negative ending)

In that case, you will end up buying something extra to make the total amount closer to the multiple of 1,000 kyat notes. As a last note on the subject of small notes, don't be surprised if the shopkeeper gives you some sweets in place of the change.

Myanmar 50 Kyat Note