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Learn Myanmar Language with Burmese Script, MP3 audio, PDF and unique grammar color-coding: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, particles, postpositional markers, interjections.

Naing Tinnyuntpu Naing Tinnyuntpu is no stranger to systematic and efficient approach. He came from manufacturing environment with Bachelor's and Master's in Industrial Engineering (USA).

His notable contributions to the semiconductor industry were the techniques recognized by Sematech as ‘Administrative Quality Best Practices’ during his process engineering days with now defunct IC chip making division of Hewlett-Packard in Singapore.

Born and raised in Yangon, he has lived in six countries and knowledgeable in unrelated areas including self-taught programming languages. His free online Burmese lessons serve as an effective communication bridge among tourists and growing numbers of foreign business managers with the Myanmar people.

Read this page with Myanmar Script


List of Fruits (Sortable)
Apple pan3-thi3
Asian Pear thit-tau2-thi3
Avocado htau3-but-thi3
Bael fruit / Stone Apple oat-shit-thi3
Banana hnga1-pyau3-thi3
Carambola / Star Fruit zoun3-lya3-thi3
Country Fig ga1-doot-thi3
Custard Apple au3-za2-thi3
Coconut ome3-thi3
Damson met-mun3-thi3
Dates soon2-pa1-loon2-thi3
Durian du3-yin3-thi3
Fig tha1-pfun3-thi3
Grapes za1-byit-thi3
Grapefruit / Pomelo kjweare3-gau3-thi3
Guava ma2-la1-ka2-thi3
Hog Plum gway3-cho2-thi3
Jackfruit pain3-neare3-thi3
Lychee lite-chi3
Malay Rose Apple hnin3-thi3
Mango tha1-yet-thi3
Mangosteen min3-goot-thi3
Marian ma1-yan3-thi3
Morinda yeare3-yo2-thi3
Muskmelon tha1-khwa3-hmway3-thi3
Myanmar Grapes ka1-na1-so2-thi3
Orange lain2-mau2-thi3
Papaya thin3-bau3-thi3
Passion fruit pin2-hmeare1-thi3
Peach met-moon2-thi3
Persimmon teare2-thi3
Pineapple na2-nut-thi3
Plum zi3-thi3
Pomegranate tha1-leare3-thi3
Rambutan kjet-mout-thi3
Strawberry sa1-tau2-beare2-yi2
Water Chestnut kjweare3-goun3-thi3
Watermelon pfa1-yeare3-thi3
Poultry, Beef, Pork, Mutton & Seafood (Sortable)
Beef a-meare3-tha3
Carp nga1-myit-chin3
Catfish nga1-khu2
Catfish (small) nga1-ji3
Caviar (salted roe) nga3-u1
Chicken kjet-tha3
Clam khone3-koun2
Congereel nga1-shway2
Crab ga1-nun3
Cuttlefish kin3-moon2
Duck beare3-tha3
Eel nga1-shin1
Featherback nga1-pfeare2
Fish nga3
Garfish nga1-pfoun2-yo3
Globe Fish nga1-pu2-din3
Goose beare3-ngan3
Intestine u2
Hamilton's Carp nga1-jin3
Hilsa nga1-tha1-lout
Prawn ba1-zoon2
Liver, heart, gizzard a-theare3 a-myit
Loach nga1-tha1-leare3-hto3
Lobster ba1-zoon2-htoat
Mackerel nga1-koon3-shut
Mutton hsate-tha3
Oyster ka1-ma2
Perch kut-ka1-dit
Pomfret nga1-mote
Pork wet-tha3
Red-eyed gudgeon nga1-jin3 myet-hsun2-ni2
Roe nga3-u1
Salmon pin2-leare2 nga1-tha1-lout
Sardine nga3-thit-ta2-nga3
Shrimp ba1-zoon2-sate
Snakehead fish nga1-yun1
Squid pyi2-ji2-nga3
Star fish kjeare2-nga3
Tuna fish nga1-meare3-lone3
Venison hsut-tha3
List of Vegetables and Roots (Sortable)
Arrowroot ah2-da2-loot-thi3
Asparagus ka1-nyoot
Bamboo shoots hmyit
Basil pin2-zain3
Bean sprouts peare3-pin2-bout
Bell pepper nga1-yoat-pwa1
Bitter Melon/ Bitter Gourd kjet-hin3-kha3-thi3
Bok Choy mone2-hnyin3-pfyu2
Broccoli pan3-gau2-be2-sain3
Cabbage gau2-be2-htoat
Carrot (red) mone2-la2-u1 ni2
Carrot (white) / radish mone2-la2-u1 pfyu2
Cauliflower pan3-gau2-be2
Celery Stalk ta1-yoat nun2-nun2
Chayote gau2-ra1-kha3-thi3
Chilli nga1-yoat-thi3
Cilantro / Coriander nun2-nun2-pin2
Concinna leaves hsu3-boat-ywet
Corn / maize pyoun3-pfu3
Cucumber tha1-khwa3-thi3
Djenkol bean da1-nyin3-thi3
Drum stick; Moringa oleifera dun1-tha1-loon2-thi3
Eggplant/ Brinjal/ Aubergine kha1-yan3-thi3
Green pepper nga1-yoat-cho2
Kai Lan kite-lun2
Lady's finger / Okra yone3-ba1-day2-thi3
Lettuce hsa1-lut-ywet
Marrow kjout pfa1-yone2-thi3
Melon / Gourd bu3-thi3
Mint pu2-di2-na2 (pu2-si2-nun2)
Mushroom hmo2
Mustard greens mone2-hnyin3
Pennywort myin3-khwa2-ywet
Pumpkin shway2-pfa1-yone2-thi3
Ridged gourd kha1-weare3-thi3
Roselle chin2-boun2
Snake Gourd bone2-lone2-thi3
Spinach hin3-nu1-neare2
Spring Onion / Leek kjet-thoon2-mate
Sweet Potato ga1-zoon3-u1
Tamarind leaves ma1-ji3-ywet
Tomato kha1-yan3-chin2-thi3
Taro pain3-u1
Water-crest(Kang Kong) ga1-zoon3-ywet
List of Seeds and Nuts (Sortable)
Cashew nut thi2-ho2-si1
Chestnut thit-cha1-thi3
Indian almond ba2-dun2-thi3
Peanut myay2-beare3
Sunflower seed nay2-kja2-si1
Walnut thit-kja3-thi3
Water-melon seed kwa2-si1
Rice, Bean, Staples, Cooking Ingredients & Spices (Sortable)
Aniseed sa1-mone2 za1-ba3
Baking powder hsau2-da2
Basil pin2-zain3
Bay leaf ka1-ra1-way3-ywet
Bean peare3
Black cumin sa1-mone2-net
Cardamom seed pfa2-la2-si1
Chilli powder nga1-yoat-thi3-hmome1
Chilli sauce nga1-yoat-hsi2
Cinnamon thit-ja1-bo3-khout
Clove lay3-hnyin3-pwin1
Coconut milk ome3-no1
Cooking oil hsi2
Cumin zi2-ya2
Curry powder ma1-hsa1-la2
Dried Shrimp ba1-zoon2-chout
Eggs kjet-u1
Fennel sa1-mone2-za1-ba3
Fish sauce ngan2-pya2-yay2
Five-spiced powder ta1-yoat ma1-hsa1-la2
Flour (wheat) jone2-hmone1
Garlic kjet-thoon2-pfyu2
Ginger jin3
Gram ka1-la1-beare3
Lemon grass za1-ba1-lin2
Lemon leaf shout-ywet
Lentil peare3-ni2-lay3
MSG a-cho2-hmone1
Olive oil thun2-lwin2-hsi2
Onion kjet-thoon2-ni2
Oyster sauce kha1-yu1-hsi2
Palm oil sa3-ome3-hsi2
Pea flour peare3-hmone1
Peanut oil myay2-beare3-hsi2
Pepper nga1-yoat-goun3
Potato ah2-lu3
Rice hsun2
Rice flour hsun2-hmone1
Salt hsa3
Seasoning powder kjet-tha3-hmone1
Seaweed kjout-pwin1
Sesame oil hnun3-hsi2
Soya Sauce (thick) kja2-nyo1
Soya Sauce (thin) peare3-ngan2-pya2-yay2
Spices hin3-khut a-hmway3 a-kjine2
Tapioca powder pa1-lau3-pi2-nun2-hmone1
Tumeric hsa1-nwin3
Vinegar sha2-la1-ka2 yay2

Lesson 16: Buying Meat, Fruits, Vegetables, Eggs & Bread

If you decide to live in Yangon for an extended period like a number of foreign businessmen, sooner or later you will need to do some grocery shopping on your own. There are a number of supermarkets in Yangon like Ocean Supermarket and City Mart where you don't need to speak anything. However, those supermarkets may not be in the vicinity of your neighborhood. It is much more convenient to rely on your neighborhood shops and markets to buy fresh fruits, meat, vegetables, bread and eggs.

City Mart Supermarket in Yangon

The Burmese word for market is zay3. MP3 Audio File If you can't go to zay3, then it will come to you. In many residential areas, the sellers go around the neighborhood with a big basket of meat, fish, and chicken balanced over their heads. Some fruits and vegetables sellers use trolley carts to push around the streets and cry out what they are selling using their trademark sales pitch.

You may not always understand what they are shouting even if you know some Burmese. Even Burmese like me sometimes don't know what they are shouting. In one case, I heard someone selling ga1-nun3 dway2.. ga1-nun2 dway2.. I ran out to catch the seller expecting some fresh or cooked crabs but it turned out to be the print out results of the state lottery. Ga1-nun3 in Burmese also means "numbers".

If you don't know what's inside the basket, just ask:

Ba2 - What
pa2 - accompany
leare3 - ?

Ba2 pa2 leare3 -- What are you carrying? What do you have there? (what + accompany + ?)

The respond will be something like:

kjet-tha3 pa2 deare2... I have chicken... (chicken + accompany + affirmation)
nga3 pa2 deare2... I have fish... (fish + accompany + affirmation)
wet-tha3 pa2 deare2... I have pork... (pork + accompany + affirmation)

You may still not understand the person if you have a limited vocabulary. Don't worry. Just say:

kji1 chin2 deare2 -- Let me have a look. ( look + want + affirmation)

kji1 means "to look". kji1 chin2 is the desire to look. kji1 chin2 deare2 can also be translated as "I want to look." But, the feeling tone is not so blunt as such. It's more like, "Let me have a look."

The seller will put the basket down and you can take a look what's inside. If whatever inside is not what you want, say:

ma1 - negative (particle)
weare2 - buy (verb)
thay3 - yet to be (particle)
bu3 - negative ending (particle)

ma1 weare2 thay3 bu3 -- Not buying this time. ( negative + buy + yet to be + negative ending )

If you are interested, the next logical step is to ask the price:

beare2-lo2 youn3 tha1-leare3 -- How much are you selling? ( How + sell + ? )

or, simply ask: beare2-lout leare3 -- How much?

Weight & Measurements

How much are you selling?

In supermarkets, kilogram is used to measure weight for meat, cooked food, fruits and other food stuff such as bags of rice. The local weight scale used in neighborhood shops and markets is called pate-tha2, (viss) MP3 Audio File which is divided into 100 kjut-tha3 (ticals). MP3 Audio File

If you buy ta1-bate-tha2 (one pate-tha2) MP3 Audio File of meat, you will get about 3.6 lb ( 1.6 kg), which is simply too much for a typical Burmese family who buys fresh vegetables, fish or meat almost every day. if you ask: "beare2-lo2 youn3 tha1-leare3" (how much are you selling ?), MP3 Audio File the seller will reply you in terms of kjut-tha3, which is shortened as tha3.


a-meare3-tha3 beare2-lo2 youn3 tha1-leare3 -- How much do you sell the beef? (beef + how + sell + ?)

chout-ya2 -- 600

Updates: 10 tha3 of beef that cost 600 Kyat in 2012 costs 900 Kyat in December 2014, 1000 kyat in June 2015, and remains the same as of July 2016 in Yangon. The price of chicken relative to beef and pork comes down and cost about 700 Kyat. Pork, depending on which part, cost around 700 to 900 on the average in July 2016. The meat part without fat is around 1100 Kyat and spare ribs are 550 Kyat. The premium spare ribs with soft bones are expensive and ordered by hotels and restaurants in advance, so you will not find it in the market.
Myanmar Grammar Notes: Question words such as beare2-lo2 and beare2-lout can be either pronoun or adjective depending on the sentence. In the above question, beare2-lo2 is a clear reference to a-meare3-tha3 (noun) so, it is an adjective. If the word da2 - pronoun "this" is used in place of beef, beare2-lo2 becomes a pronoun.

You will get the same answer if you ask:

ta1-hseare2 tha3 beare2-lout leare3 -- How much for 10 tha3 ?(10 + tha3 + how much + ?)

Sometimes, you may hear the word "ba2" appended to the answer to soften the tone.

chout-ya2 ba2 -- Oh, it's 600.

(Please refer to Lesson 2 for the use of the word "ba2". )

Unlike in the supermarkets, fruits and some vegetables in neighborhood markets are sold in quantity, bunches, or in bundles.


tha1-yet thi3 beare2-lo2 youn3 tha1-leare3 -- How much do you sell the mangoes? (mango + how + sell + ?)

thone3 lone3 ta1-htoun2 -- 3 for 1,000. (3 + unit for fruits + 1 + thousand)

Updates: The price of mangoes as of June 2015 cost about the same as they were in 2012. The more expensive export (to China) variety called "Sain2-ta1-lone3" are sold 3 for 2000 Kyat in 2016 rainy season.

kjet-u1 beare2-lo2 youn3 tha1-leare3 -- How much do you sell the eggs ? (chicken + egg + how + sell + ?)

ta1-lone3 ta1-ya2 ba2 -- 1 for 100. (1 + unit for eggs + 1 + hundred)

Updates: The price of an egg (medium to large size) as of June 2015 cost around 120 Kyat and remains stable at this price in July 2016 while duck eggs are sold 150 Kyat each.
Myanmar Grammar Notes: ta1-lone3 refers to the quantity of eggs without mentioning the word "egg" (noun) so, it is a pronoun. On the other hand, ta1-lone3 in kjet-u1 ta1-lone3 is an adjective.

mone2-hnyin3 beare2-lo2 youn3 tha1-leare3 -- How much do you sell the mustard greens? (mustard greens + how + sell + ?)

thone3-zi3 hna1-ya2 ba2 -- Oh, its 200 for 3 bundles. (3 + bundles + 2 + hundred + polite ending word)

June 2015 Updates: The prices of some vegetables such as watercress, spinach, green pepper, cucumber, and tomatoes are relatively stable and abundantly available. But, there appear to be less amount in the size of the bundle.

July 2016 Updates: Roselles (chin2-boun2) are most affordable with 50 Kyat a bundle, while watercress (ga1-zoon3-ywet) are fresh and abundant at 100 Kyat a bundle. Djenkol bean (da1-nyin3-thi3) is 50 each. Those three are luxury items for Overseas Burmese people who are dying to have those, and pay high price in some other countries if available at all.

Although the phrase: beare2-lo2 youn3 tha1-leare3 sounds more colloquial for an item that the seller can mark up the price and sell it as he or she wishes, the phrase "beare2-lout leare3 - How much?" sounds more natural for items with more or less fixed prices, such as bread that is distributed by the wholesaler.

poun2-mone1 beare2-lout leare3 -- How much is bread ? (bread + how much + ?)

How much for any item?

If you don't know the name of the item or its measure word (unit) in Burmese, there is an easy way out:

da2 beare2-lout leare3 -- How much is this? (this + how much + ?)

Poultry, Beef, Pork, & Seafood

You are almost certain to get nga3 | fish MP3 Audio File everyday from the neighborhood shops and sellers who go around the residential areas. In special occasions, Burmese people poun3 | steam the nga1-tha1-lout | hilsa fish for several hours until bones are tender and can be eaten. If you want to try out the taste of nga1-tha1-lout poun3 | steamed hilsa, MP3 Audio File you can buy it in the canned food sections of the supermarkets (and even in neighborhood shops) on the same shelves as tuna and sardine.

Hilsa is found in the rivers of Myanmar and Bangladesh. It is oily and somewhat like Salmon. Polyunsaturated fatty acids found in Hilsa is healthful for human consumption just like Salmon fish. Contrary to popular Burmese belief, a study has shown that eating Hilsa will not increase the blood pressure (because its oily) , but will reduce the cholesterol level. Here's a link:


Average Burmese will be familiar with nga3-thit-ta2 nga3 | sardine MP3 Audio File both fresh and in tin cans, but imported tuna is much more expensive, and can only be bought in tin cans.

Some Burmese Buddhists avoid taking a-meare3-tha3 | beef, MP3 Audio File which is probably an Indian Hindu tradition. Another reason could be that for generations, cows and bulls are used in the fields for growing crops and for transportation that they are considered kjay3 zu3 shin2 (someone or something to be thankful for.)

ba1-zoon2 | prawns MP3 Audio File and smaller ba1-zoon2-hsate | shrimps MP3 Audio File are abundant in Myanmar, and you can get those fresh from the markets. There are shrimp farms in Myanmar, but since shrimp farming is a lucrative business for export with more profits, fresh seafood you get from the local markets are most likely from the rivers and coastal areas caught by the fishing boats.

beare3-tha3 | duck MP3 Audio File is less common than kjet-tha3 | chicken, MP3 Audio File and they are often bony. However, you can easily get beare3-u1 |duck eggs, MP3 Audio File which the Burmese use for cooking mone1-hin3-kha3 MP3 Audio File -- Burmese favorite for breakfast with rice noodle in fish gravy. If you have craving for Chinese Peking roasted ducks, the best is to go to restaurants like Golden Duck where you can get ducks with more meat than bones.

There are two types of kjet | chicken. MP3 Audio File The first type is grown in big chicken farms and those come in the same size as in Western countries. Those big size chicken are called mway3-myu2-yay3-kjet | poultry farm chicken. MP3 Audio File Second type is ba1-ma2-kjet | Burmese chicken MP3 Audio File preferred by some people for its "sweet" taste.

There is a Burmese saying: When it comes to meat, pork is the best; for fruit, mango is the one; pickled-tea is chosen among the leaves. Wet-tha3 | Pork MP3 Audio File is sold in different prices. The most expensive part is meat only without any fat. But, the price difference is not that substantial. Interestingly, some Burmese also avoid taking pork just like Muslims. When I was young, for example, you could not bring pork to Mount Popa because local people believed that certain Nats (supernatural beings) like byut-ta1 who was a Muslim seaman executed by King A-nau2-ra1-hta2 disapproved of it. I am not sure if this tradition has changed, but it does make sense to avoid animal fats for health reasons.

Fruits & Seasons

Fruit seller in Yangon

Myanmar has three seasons. The cooler "tourist" season is from October to March when nights are pleasantly cooler than hot summer months from April to about June. You can expect heavy rains and thunder storms from June to September. The rain seems to be heaviest around July, and then tapered off towards the end of October.

You can get sa1-tau2-beare2-yi2 | strawberry, MP3 Audio File za1-byit-thi3 | grapes, MP3 Audio File pan3-thi3 | apples, MP3 Audio File kjweare3-gau3-thi3 | grapefruits, MP3 Audio File and lite-chi3 | lychee MP3 Audio File grown in highland regions during those "tourist" seasons when the temperature could drop below freezing point in some parts of the country. Around Christmas to Chinese New Year, you can get oranges and tangerines of different sizes, types, and names.

If you visit Myanmar during the rainy season, you can eat tha1-yet thi3 | mangoes MP3 Audio File all you want, and they are not expensive like in the US or Canada. You can also get durians during summer till the end of the year. Rainy season is the season of fruits when you can have your stomach filled with na2-nut-thi3 | pineapples, MP3 Audio File min3-goot-thi3 | mangosteen, MP3 Audio File au3-za2-thi3 | custard apples, MP3 Audio File met-moon2-thi3 | peaches, MP3 Audio File thit-tau2-thi3 | Asian pears, MP3 Audio File ma2-la1-ka2-thi3 | guavas, MP3 Audio File pain3-neare3-thi3 | jack fruits, MP3 Audio File zi3-thi3 | plums, MP3 Audio File and kjet-mout-thi3 | rambutans. MP3 Audio File

There seems to be two seasons for pfa1-yeare3-thi3 | water melons. MP3 Audio File You can get it in the summer till the start of rainy season, and again around December.

You can get papayas and bananas in all seasons. Fruits are sold in a way quite similar to other countries. Bananas are sold by the bunch. Grapes and a type of small size oranges called pya3 lain2 mau2 MP3 Audio File are weighed, and strawberries are sold by the basket. Bigger fruits like durians, and pineapples are sold by a single quantity, whereas mangoes are sold in the quantity of 3 or 5.

For a longer list of fruits in Burmese, please refer to the table on the left.

Grocery Items and Cooking Ingredients

You can get eggs, bread and grocery items in neighborhood shops and corner stores. But, be sure to stock up enough food (especially bread) before thin3-jan2 (water festival) and Burmese New Year in mid April. Shops will be opened for limited hours if not closed for several days. Also beware of price hike ups for items like fish and meat just before the shut down.

Rice, Cooking Oil and Soya Sauce in Burmese

Smaller Change

It must have been a long, long time since Burmese people last used coins. In the past, Kyat ( pronounced kjut with silent "t" ) was divided into 100 pya ( pronounced pya3.). Pyas were coins, such as 5 pya, 10 pya, 25 pya, and 50 pya coins.

Due to inflation that had shot up several folds in the 1980's, the smallest denomination you see today are 5 kyat notes, and 10 kyat notes. They are sometimes stapled together in 50 kyat amount; only then they become a meaningful amount to buy anything at all, or to return as a small change. As of 2014, even those have disappeared, and the smallest note you see is 50 kyat note.

Burmese kyat notes in the denominations of 50 kyat, 100 kyat, and 200 kyat notes are considered small changes, and called a-kjway2. MP3 Audio File Those small notes used to be notoriously dirty, worn-out and in sorry conditions, but in the year 2011, the government banks have started to replace those with newly printed notes.

Shopkeeper to the customer:

a-kjway2 pa2 la3 -- Do you have small change with you?( small change + accompany + ?)

Customer to vegetables seller:

a-kjway2 un3 nine2 la3 -- Are you able to return change? (small change + to return change + able to + ?)

Here's how the question of small change should be answered:

a-kjway2 pa2 deare2 -- I have small change. (small change + accompany + affirmative)

a-kjway2 ma1 pa2 bu3 -- I didn't bring any change. (small change + not + accompany + negative ending)

a-kjway2 ma1 shi1 bu3 -- I don't have any change.(small change + not + present + negative ending)

a-kjway2 ma1 un3 nine2 bu3 -- I cannot return small change. (small change + not + to return change + able to + negative ending)

In that case, you will end up buying something extra to make the total amount closer to the multiple of 1,000 kyat notes. As a last note on the subject of small notes, don't be surprised if the shopkeeper gives you some sweets in place of the change.

Myanmar 50 Kyat Note