Asia Pearl Travels Logo
Inle Lake gulls
The Free Online Burmese Lessons
Learn Myanmar Language, History & Culture
Myanmar — The Land of the Fast and the Strong
Myanmar flag

Learn Myanmar Language in conversational and literary form. Learn to speak and read Burmese. The Free Online Colloquial Burmese (Myanmar language) lessons include Burmese script, MP3 audio, PDF files and easy Burmese grammar study materials with color-coded parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, particles, postpositional markers, and interjections.

Naing Tinnyuntpu Naing Tinnyuntpu is no stranger to systematic and efficient approach. He came from manufacturing environment with Bachelor's and Master's degree in Industrial Engineering (USA). His contributions to semiconductor industry include Administrative Quality Best Practices during his working years as a process engineer with Hewlett-Packard in Singapore. Born and raised in Yangon, he has lived in 6 countries and exposed to different cultures and knowledgeable in unrelated areas. This includes self-taught programming languages. Currently, he is contributing to Tourism in Myanmar by making his online Burmese lessons freely available and accessible to all.





search

Looking for a word?

SEARCH MYANMAR WORDS IN ENTIRE MYANMAR LANGUAGE LESSONS.



Powered by Google Custom Search Engine.


TONE REFERENCE TABLE
Audio Pronunciation
Ah1 "a" in "art" with silent "rt"
Ah2 "ar" in "Argentina" with silent "r"
Ah3 "ar" in "Artist" with slilent "r"
De1 "de" in "deep" with silent "p"
De2 "de" as in "demote"; "demand"
De3 "dee" as in "deer"; "decent"
Ko1 "colt" with silent "lt"
Ko2 as in "co-author"; "cocaine"
Ko3 "cold" wit silent "ld"
Yu1 "u" in "Youth" with silent "th"
Yu2 "u" as in "university"; "utensil"
Yu3 "u" as in "user"; "Unix"
Shan1 as in "shunt" with silent "t"
Shan2 "shun" as in "chandelier"
Shan3 as in "shun"
Au1 as in "auction"
Au2 as in "Australia";"auditor"
Au3 as in "August"
May1 "maize" with silent "ze"
May2 "may" as in "May I?"
May3 "ay" in "amazing"
Sin1 "sink" with silent "k"
Sin2 "sin" as in "sincerely"
Sin3 "sin" as in "sinful"; "Singapore"
Un1 "aunt" with silent "t"
Un2 "un" in "understanding"; "umbrella"
Un3 "un" as in "under"
Meare1 "melt" with silent "lt"
Meare2 "mel" in "Melbourne" with silent "l"
Meare3 "mare" of "nightmare"
Tain1 "taint" with silent "t"
Tain2 "tain" as in "Captain"
Tain3 "tain" as in "maintain"
Bine1 "Bryant" without "r"
Bine2 as in "carbine"
Bine3 as in "combine"
Dome1 as in "don't"
Dome2 close to "dominate"
Dome3 as in "dome"
Toon1 "doont" in "couldn't"
Toon2 "mon" in "monastery"
Toon3 "oon" as in "cartoon"
Koun1 "count" with silent "t"
Koun2 "coun" in "counter-strike"
Koun3 "coun" as in "counsel"
ate cake, jade, eight, paid, bake
et wet, set, mad, yet
oot cook, put, look
out out, south, mouse, doubt
ike/ite sight, pipe, night, dice, like
ut up, nut, sucks
oat oat, coat, goat, soak
it it, pit, sit

Lesson 61: Burmese Grammar made easy — part 3 — Conjunctions

Myanmar Language Conjunctions known as သမ္ဗန္ဓ | thun2-bun2-da1 MP3 Audio File are words that connect other words or sentences. They are used to join similar items or meaning to show inclusiveness or continuity just like "and", "with", "moreover", etc. in English. They are also used to show contrasts such as "however", "but" and "nevertheless". Sometimes, they are used to express constraints and challenges like the English words "despite" and "in spite of". Conjunctions are also used to show "or else" choice, logical consequence such as "therefore", and "as a result", or to describe the desired end result such as "in order to" and "so that".

Unlike particles and postpositional markers that are challenging topics to explain to the non-native Burmese speakers, conjunctions are relatively simple and similar to English. Once you get used to the word order which is opposite from English in many cases, you will find those easy. Knowing the meaning of the phrases and sentences at ease (without thinking) will give confidence to construct new sentences on your own.

နားလည်အောင်ရှင်းပြမယ်။ | na3-leare2 oun2 shin3-pya1 meare2 MP3 Audio File -- [I will] explain [it] so that [you] understand.

နားလည် | na3-leare2 - understand
အောင် | oun2 - in order to/so that
ရှင်းပြ | shin3-pya1 - explain
မယ် | meare2 - will

The above spoken phrase shows the usage of conjunction အောင် | oun2 "so that" or "in order to". Also note that the word order is different from English and "You" and "I" are omitted. နားလည် | na3-leare2 means to understand. It is a compound word made up of နား | na3 meaning "ear" and လည် | leare2 meaning to be shrewd or to be clever. In another words, to make the ears clever.

နားလည်အောင် | na3-leare2 oun2 -- In order to make you understand

ရှင်းပြမယ် | shin3-pya1 meare2 -- I will explain it.

As lessons progress, there will be more complex sentence constructions. The material presented here is checked against Myanmar language grammar text books published by the Ministry of Education for accuracy and correctness.

You will always see or hear literary form of conjunctions in formal speeches, announcements, news and in the written language. Understanding those words differentiate you from the illiterate in the Myanmar Language. The spoken form of conjunctions with the same meaning are shown as [colloquial].

Learn Burmese Grammar

Conjunctions - သမ္ဗန္ဓ | thun2-bun2-da1

§ 13. Definition of conjunction by the Ministry of Education:

ပုဒ်အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊ | pote a-chin3-chin3 go2 pfyit say2 -- either words (words + mutually or reciprocally + to + either)

ဝါကျအချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊ | wet-kja1 a-chin3-chin3 go2 pfyit say2 -- either sentence (words + mutually or reciprocally + to + either)

အဓိပ္ပာယ် အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ | a-date-peare2 a-chin3-chin3 go2 pfyit say2 -- either meaning (meaning + mutually or reciprocally + to + either)

ဆက်စပ်ပေးသော | hset-sut pay3 dthau3 -- that which connects (connect + verb suffix particle "give" + that which)

စကားလုံးကို | za1-ga1-lone3 go2 -- to that word (word + postpositional marker "to")

သမ္ဗန္ဓဟုခေါ်သည်။ | thun2-bun2-da1 hu1 khau2 dthi2 -- is known as conjunction (conjunction + as + call + postpositional marker to make the verb "is called")

ပုဒ်အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊ ဝါကျအချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ၊ အဓိပ္ပာယ် အချင်းချင်းကိုဖြစ်စေ ဆက်စပ်ပေးသော စကားလုံးကို သမ္ဗန္ဓဟုခေါ်သည်။ -- Word that connects either other words or sentence or meaning reciprocally is called conjunction. MP3 Audio File


§ 13.1. In the above definition of conjunction, conjunction word ဖြစ်စေ | pfyit say2 - either ... or ... or is used three times to connect the words to form a sentence.

§ 14. Conjunctions are classified into 3 types by type of join and 11 types by meaning.

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ | hset-sut-pone2 a-ya1 -- by means of connection (connect + the way + according to)

သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးနှင့် | thun2-bun2-da1 thone3 myo3 hnin1 -- three types of conjunctions and (conjunctions + 3 + type + and)

အနက်အဓိပ္ပါယ်အရ | a-net a-date-peare1 a-ya1 -- by means of meaning in depth (depth + meaning + according to)

သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၁၁)မျိုးရှိသည်။ | thun2-bun2-da1 hseare1-ta1 myo3 shi1 dthi2 -- eleven types of conjunctions do exist. (conjunction + eleven + type + exist/have + ending ppm)

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးနှင့် အနက်အဓိပ္ပါယ်အရ သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၁၁)မျိုးရှိသည်။ -- By means of connection, there are three types of conjunctions and by meaning, there are eleven types of conjunctions. MP3 Audio File

§ 14.1 In the above sentence, the conjunction နှင့် | hnin1 is the AND word which joins the words describing "three types" and "eleven types" of conjunctions to form a complete sentence.

§ 14.2 The three types of conjunctions according to connections are as follows:

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ | hset-sut-pone2 a-ya1 -- by means of connection (connect + the way + according to)

သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးမှာ | thun2-bun2-da1 thone3 myo3 hma2 -- the tree types of conjunctions are (conjunctions + 3 + type + subject marker "are")

အောက်ပါအတိုင်းဖြစ်သည်။ | out-pa2 a-tine3 fyit dthi2-- (are in existence) as shown below: (shown below + ppm that shows compliance: "according to" + happen to be + ppm showing present state roughly "is/are/ to be")

ဆက်စပ်ပုံအရ သမ္ဗန္ဓ (၃)မျိုးမှာ အောက်ပါအတိုင်းဖြစ်သည်။ MP3 Audio File

1. နှင့် | hnin1

နဲ့ | neare1

သို့မဟုတ် | dtho1 ma1 hote

မဟုတ်ရင် | ma1 hote yin2

ဖြစ်စေ ... ဖြစ်စေ | pfyit say2 ... pfyit say2

သော်လည်းကောင်း. ... သော်လည်းကောင်း | dthau2 la1-goun3 ... dthau2 la1-goun3

မှတပါး | hma1 ta1 ba3

မှလွဲ၍ | hma1 lweare3 yway1

ကလွဲပြီး | gah1 lweare3 pyi3

ကလွဲလို့ | gah1 lweare3 lo1

ရော ... ရော | yau3 ... yau3

ကော ... ကော | gau3 ... gau3

ပုဒ်ဆက်သမ္ဗန္ဓ | poat-hset thun2-bun2 da1 MP3 Audio File -- Conjunctions that connect words. Example:

လူမိုက်နှင့်ငွေ အတူမနေ | lu2-mite hnin1 ngway2 a-tu2 ma1 nay2 -- A fool and his money soon parted. (foolish person + with/and + money + together + not + stay) [proverb] MP3 Audio File

လူမိုက်နဲ့ မပေါင်းနဲ့ | lu2-mite neare1 ma1 poun3 neare1 -- Don't associate with a fool. (foolish person + with + not + befriend + negative imperative) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

Note that there are two နဲ့ in the above sentence. The final ending word နဲ့ is not a conjunction, but a particle meaning "Don't". Similarly, the word နဲ့ in the sentence below is not a conjunction, but a postpositional marker showing utility, i.e., "using" something to do something.

ကားနဲ့သွား | ka3 neare1 thwa3 -- Go with a car. (car + with/and + go) [colloquial suggestion] MP3 Audio File

လေယာဉ်လက်မှတ်ကို ​​ဒေါ်လာသို့မဟုတ် ကျပ်ဖြင့်ပေးနိုင်သည်။ | lay2-yin2 let-hmut go2 dau2-la2 dhto1-ma1-hote kjut pfyin1 pay3 nine2 dthi2 -- You can purchase air tickets by either Dollar or Kyat. (air ticket + ppm indicating object + dollar + either or + Kyat + using with + pay + can + ppm marking present state) MP3 Audio File

လေယာဉ်လက်မှတ်ကို ​ဒေါ်လာမဟုတ်ရင် ကျပ်နဲ့ပေးနိုင်တယ်။ | lay2-yin2 let-hmut go2 dau2-la2 ma1-hote-yin2 kjut neare1 pay3 nine2 deare2 -- You can buy air tickets by either Dollar or Kyat. (air ticket + ppm indicating object + dollar + either or + Kyat+ using with + pay + can be done + ppm marking present state) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

နာမဝိသေသနကို နှစ်ကြိမ်ထပ်ခြင်းဖြင့် ဖြစ်စေ၊ ပစ္စည်းတစ်ခုခုဆက်ခြင်းဖြင့် ဖြစ်စေ၊ ကြိယာဝိသေသနဖြစ်အောင် ဖွဲ့စည်းနိုင်သည်။ | na2-ma1 wi1 thay2 tha1 na1 go2 hna1 kjain2 htut chin3 pfyin1 pfyit say2 pyit-si3 ta1-khu1-khu1 hset chin3 pfyin1 pfyit say2 kri1-ya2 wi1 thay2 tha1 na1 pfyit oun2 pfweare1-si3 nine2 dthi2 -- You can modify adjective into adverb by either doubling up the adjective word or by appending a particle. (adjective + to + 2 + times + stack up + [suffix "chin3" converts prior 3 words to noun] + with + either or + particle + an item + attach + [suffix "chin3" converts prior 3 words to noun] + with + either or + adverb + become reality + in order to + construct + can be done + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

ကျိုက်ထီးရိုးသို့ ကားဖြင့်သော်လည်းကောင်း ရထားဖြင့်သော်လည်းကောင်း သွားရောက်လည်ပတ်နိုင်သည်။ | kjite-hti3-yo3 dtho1 ka3 pfyin1 dthau2 la1-goun3 yet-hta3 pfyin1 dthau2 la1-goun3 thwa3-yout leare2-pup nine2 dthi2 -- You can visit Kyaikhtiyo (Golden Rock) by either with a car or by taking a train. (Kyaikhtiyo + to + car + with + either or + train + with + either or + go and visit + can be done + PPM ending for present tense) MP3 Audio File

ဤသားတစ်ယောက်မှတပါး အခြားအားကိုးစရာမရှိပေ။ | e2 tha3 ta1-yout hma1 ta1 ba3 a-cha3 ah3-ko3 sa1-ya2 ma1 shi1 pay2 -- Apart from this son there is no one else to depend on. (this + son + 1 + person + apart from/except + other + something or someone to depend on + not + have + ending emphasis) MP3 Audio File

Note: The conjunction မှလွဲ၍ | hma1 lweare3 yway1 may also be used in place of မှတပါး | hma1 ta1 ba3 in the above sentence.

ဒီသားတစ်ယောက်ကလွဲပြီး တခြားအားကိုးစရာမရှိပါ။ | de2 tha3 ta1-yout gah1 lweare3 pyi3 ta1-cha3 ah3-ko3 sa1-ya2 ma1 shi1 ba2 -- Apart from this son there is no one else to depend on. (this + son + 1 + person + apart from/except + other + something or someone to depend on + not + have + ending emphasis) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

Note: Colloquial conjunction ကလွဲလို့ | gah1 lweare3 lo1 may also be used in place of ကလွဲပြီး | gah1 lweare3 pyi3 in the above sentence.

သူရော ကျွန်တောရော ဝင်ပြိုင်ကြတယ်။ | thu2 yau3 kja1-nau2 yau3 win2 pyine2 ja1 deare2 -- Both he and I entered the Contest. (he + also + I + also + enter + compete + plural of the verb + ending ppm) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

ခေါက်ဆွဲကြော်ကော ထမင်းကြော်ကော မှာထားတယ်။ | khout-hsweare3-kjau2 gau3 hta1-min3 kjau2 gau3 hma2 hta3 deare2 -- I've already ordered both fried noodle and fried rice. (fried noodle + also + fried rice + also + make an order + suffix to indicate prior action that is still in effect + ending ppm) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

Note: Colloquial conjunctions ရော | yau3 and ကော | gau3 are interchangeable.

2. သောကြောင့် | dthau3 joun1

| yway1

ပြီး | pyi3

သောအခါ | dthau3 a-kha2

နှင့်တစ်ပြိုင်နက် | hnin1 da1-byine2-net

သာမက ... လည်း | dtha2 ma1-ka1 ... leare3

လျှင် | hlyin2

ရင် | yin2

က | ga1

သကဲ့သို့ | dtha1-keare1-tho1

သော်လည်း | dthau2 leare3

ထက် | htet

လျက် | hlyet

စေရန် | zay2-yan2

ဝါကျဆက်သမ္ဗန္ဓ | wet-kj11-hset thun2-bun2-da1 are conjunctions that connect simple sentences known as ဝါကျရိုး | wet-kja1-yo3. When this type of conjunction is used, the ending postpositional marker of the first simple sentence such as ပြီ and သည် are removed and replaced with the conjunction. In some cases, there is a tone change to the ending postpostional marker of the first simple sentence. E.g., သည် becomes သည့်.

Examples:

(A) မောင်ဘသည် ကြိုးစားသည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 kjo3-za3 dthi2 -- Maung Ba works hard. (Maung Ba + ppm marking Maung Ba is a subject + try hard + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(B) မောင်ဘသည် အောင်မြင်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 oun2 myin2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba finds success. (Maung Ba + ppm marking Maung Ba is a subject + find success + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

The above two simple sentences can be combined with the conjunction | yway1 or သောကြောင့် | dthau3 joun1 as follow:

(AB1) မောင်ဘသည် ကြိုးစားသောကြောင့် အောင်မြင်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 kjo3-za3 dthau3 joun1 oun2 myin2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba works hard. As a result, he finds success. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + try hard + as a result + finds success + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(AB2) မောင်ဘသည် ကြိုးစား အောင်မြင်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 kjo3-za3 yway1 oun2 myin2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba works hard. Therefore, he finds success. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + try hard + therefore + finds success + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

The conjunction | yway1 can also be used to connect two activities one after another as shown in (CD1) below.

(C) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 htoon3 dthi2 -- Maung Ba lights up the candle. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(D) မောင်ဘသည် စာဖတ်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 sa2 pfut dthi2 -- Maung Ba reads a book. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + word/letter + read + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(CD1) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်း စာဖတ်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 htoon3 yway1 sa2 pfut dthi2 -- Maung Ba reads a book after lighting up the candle. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + after that + word/letter + read + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(CD2) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းပြီး စာဖတ်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 htoon3 pyi3 sa2 pfut dthi2 -- Maung Ba reads a book after lighting up the candle. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + after that + word/letter + read + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(E) ညအခါ မီးပျက်သည်။ | nya1 a-kha2 mi3 pyet dthi2 -- At night time, electricity goes out. (night + that time + light + fail/not in working order + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(F) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 htoon3 dthi2 -- Maung Ba lights up the candle. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(EF1) ညအခါ မီးပျက်သောအခါ မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။ | nya1 a-kha2 mi3 pyet dthau3 a-kha2 moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 htoon3 dthi2 -- When electricity goes out at night, Maung Ba lights up the candle. (night + that time + light + fail/not in working order + when + Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(EF2) ညအခါ မီးပျက်သည်နှင့်တစ်ပြိုင်နက် မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ထွန်းသည်။ | nya1 a-kha2 mi3 pyet dthi2 hnin1 da1-byine2-net moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 htoon3 dthi2 -- As soon as electricity goes out at night, Maung Ba lights up the candle. (night + that time + light + fail/not in working order + ending ppm + as soon as + Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + light up something for visibility + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(G) မောင်ဘသည် မြန်မာစာတော်သည်။ | moun2-ba1 dthi2 myan2-ma2-sa2 tau2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba is good in Myanmar Language. (Maung Ba + ppm to indicate subject + Burmese + to excel in something + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(H) မောင်ဘသည် အင်္ဂလိပ်စာတော်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 in3-ga1-late-sa2 tau2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba is good in English. (Maung Ba + ppm to indicate subject + English + to excel in something + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(GH) မောင်ဘသည် မြန်မာစာတော်သည် သာမက အင်္ဂလိပ်စာလည်း တော်သည်။ | moun2-ba1 dthi2 myan2-ma2-sa2 tau2 dthi2 dtha2 ma1-ka1 in3-ga1-late-sa2 leare3 tau2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba is not only good in Myanmar Language, but also good in English. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + Myanmar Language + to excel in something + ending ppm + not only + English + also + to excel in something + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(I) ဈေးစောစောသွားသည်။ | zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 dthi2 -- (You) go to the market early. (market + early + go + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(J) ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်သည်။ | bu3-thi3 kjau2 yah1 nine2 dthi2 -- (You) can get fried melon. (melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(IJ1) ဈေးစောစောသွားလျှင် ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်သည်။ | zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 hlyin2 bu3-thi3 kjau2 yah1 nine2 dthi2 -- If you go to the market early, you can get fried melon. (market + early + go + if + melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(IJ2) ဈေးစောစောသွားရင် ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်တယ်။ | zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 yin2 bu3-thi3 kjau2 yah1 nine2 deare2 -- If you go to the market early, you can get fried melon. (market + early + go + if + melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm)[colloquial] MP3 Audio File

(IJ3) ဈေးစောစောသွားက ဘူးသီးကြော်ရနိုင်သည်။ | zay3 sau3-sau3 thwa3 ga1 bu3-thi3 kjau2 yah1 nine2 dthi2 -- If you go to the market early, you can get fried melon. (market + early + go + if + melon + fry + get + can + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

Note: Fried Melons are served on top of Burmese Fish Gravy Rice Noodle Mont Hin Kha. They don't stay crispy for the whole day and they are usually sold out early in the breakfast time.

(K) သကြားသည်ချိုသည်။ | dtha1-ja3 dthi2 cho2 dthi2 -- Sugar is sweet. (sugar + ppm marking subject + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(L) ပျားရည်လည်းချိုသည်။ | pya3-yay2 leare3 cho2 dthi2 -- Honey is also sweet. (honey + also + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(KL) သကြားသည်ချိုသကဲ့သို့ ပျားရည်လည်းချိုသည်။ | dtha1-ja3 dthi2 cho2 dtha1-keare1-dtho1 pya3-yay2 leare3 cho2 dthi2 -- Honey is sweet just like sugar. (sugar + ppm marking subject + sweet + just like/as if/similar to + honey + also + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(M) ဤဆေးသည်ခါးသည်။ | e2 hsay3 dthi2 kha3 dthi2 -- This medicine is bitter. (this + medicine + ppm marking subject + bitter + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(N) ပျားရည်ကချိုသည်။ | pya3-yay2 gah1 cho2 dthi2 -- Honey is sweet. (honey + as for the subject "honey" + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(MN) ဤဆေးသည်ခါးသော်လည်း ပျားရည်ကချိုသည်။ | e2 hsay3 dthi2 kha3 dthau2 leare3 pya3-yay2 gah1 cho2 dthi2 -- Although this medicine is bitter, honey is sweet. (this + medicine + ppm marking subject + bitter + although/but + honey + is + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

Note: The word က was used earlier in (IJ3) as a conjunction connecting action and consequence. But, in (N), it is a postpositional marker showing the subject "honey".

(O)သကြားသည်ချိုသည်။ | dtha1-ja3 dthi2 cho2 dthi2 -- Sugar is sweet. (sugar + ppm marking subject + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(P) ဆေးသကြားကပိုချိုသည်။ | hsay3-dtha1-ja3 gah1 po2 cho2 dthi2 -- Saccharin is sweeter. (saccharin + ppm marking subject + more + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(OP) သကြားချိုသည်ထက် ဆေးသကြားကပိုချိုသည်။ | dtha1-ja3 cho2 dthi2 htet hsay3-dtha1-ja3 gah1 po2 cho2 dthi2 -- Saccharin is sweeter than sugar. (sugar + sweet + ending ppm + more than + saccharin + ppm marking subject + more + sweet + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(Q) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ကိုင်ထားသည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 kine2 hta3 dthi2 -- Maung Ba is holding a candle. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + hold in the hand + present participle + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(R) မောင်ဘသည် အခန်းထဲသို့ ဝင်လာသည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 a-khan3 hteare3 dtho1 win2 la2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba comes inside the room. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + room + inside + ppm marking destination + enter + come + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(QR) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်ကိုင်လျက် အခန်းထဲသို့ ဝင်လာသည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 kine2 hlyet a-khan3 hteare3 dtho1 win2 la2 dthi2 -- While holding a candle, Maung Ba comes inside the room. (Maung Ba + ppm marking subject + candle + hold in the hand + while + room + inside + ppm marking destination + enter + come + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(S) အစိုးရသည် ဤမြို့ကို လျှပ်စစ်မီးမှန်မှန်ပေးိနုင်သည်။ | a-so3-ya1 dthi2 e2 myo1 go2 hlyut-sit mi3 hmun2 hmun2 pay3 nine2 dthi2 -- Government can provide this city with regular supply of electricity. (government + ppm showing subject + this + city + ppm showing object + electric + light + regularly + provide + can + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(T) အစိုးရသည် စီမံကိန်းများချမှတ်ရမည်။ | a-so3-ya1 dthi2 si2-mun2-gain3 mya3 cha1-hmut yah1 myi2 -- Government must lay down plans. (government + ppm marking subject + implementation plan + plural marker + lay down + must + ending ppm marking future action) MP3 Audio File

(ST) အစိုးရသည် ဤမြို့ကို လျှပ်စစ်မီးမှန်မှန်ပေးနိုင်စေရန် စီမံကိန်းများချမှတ်ရမည်။ | a-so3-yah1 dthi2 e2 myo1 go2 hlyut-sit mi3 hmun2 hmun2 pay3 nine2 zay2 yan2 si2-mun2-gain3 mya3 cha1-hmut yah1 myi2 -- In order to provide regular electric supply to this city, government must lay down implementation plans. (government + ppm marking subject + this + city + ppm marking object + electric + light + regularly + provide + can + in order to + implementation plan + plural marker + lay down + must + ending ppm marking future action) MP3 Audio File

Note: For decades, budget is the main constraint in providing 24/7 electricity in this country. Myanmar is expected to be sufficient in electric energy for the whole country in the year 2030.
3. ထို့ကြောင့် | hto1-joun1

ထိုအခါ | hto2 a-kha2

ထို့ပြင် ... လည်း | hto1-pyin2 ... leare3

ထို့နောက် | hto1 nout

သို့သော်လည်း | dtho1-dthau2 leare3

သို့ရာတွင် | dtho1-ya2-dwin2

အဘယ်ကြောင့်ဆိုသော် | a-beare2-joun1-hso2-dthau2

အကြောင်းမူကား | a-kjoun3-mu2-ga3

အကြောင်းမှာကား | a-kjoun3-mha2-ga3

အကြောင်းမှာမူ | a-kjoun3-mha2-mu2

အကြောင်းသော်ကား | a-kjoun3-dthau2-ga3

အဓိပ္ပါယ်ဆက်သမ္ဗန္ဓ | a-date-peare2-hset thun2-bun2-da1 are characterized by two separate sentences in which the second sentence starts with a conjunction word that has logical connection to the first sentence. English equivalents are "Therefore", "However", "In addition", etc..

Examples:

(A) မောင်ဘသည် အလုပ်ကြိုးစားသည်။ | moun2 ba2 dthi2 a-loat kjo3-za3 dthi2 -- Maung Ba works hard. (Maung Ba + subject marker + work + works hard + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(B) သူသည်လုပ်ငန်းပိုင်ရှင် တစ်ဦးဖြစ်လာသည်။ | thu2 dthi2 loat-ngan3 pine2-shin2 ta1-u3 pfyit la2 dthi2 -- He becomes a business owner. (he + subject marker + business + owner + one + person + become + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(AB) မောင်ဘသည် အလုပ်ကြိုးစားသည်။ ထို့ကြောင့် သူသည်လုပ်ငန်းပိုင်ရှင် တစ်ဦးဖြစ်လာသည်။ | moun2 ba2 dthi2 a-loat kjo3-za3 dthi2 hto1-joun1 thu2 dthi2 loat-ngan3 pine2-shin2 ta1-u3 pfyit la2 dthi2 -- Maung Ba works hard. As a result, he becomes a business owner. (Maung Ba + subject marker + work + works hard + ending ppm + as a result/consequently + he + subject marker + business + owner + one + person + become + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(C) ည (၈)နာရီတိတိအချိန်၌ မီးပျက်သွားသည်။ | nya1 shit na2-yi2 ti1-ti1 a-chain2 hnite mi3 pyet thwa3 dthi2 -- The light goes out exactly 8 at night. (night + 8 + O'clock + exact + time + at + light + out of order + gone + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(D) မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်မီးထွန်းလိုက်သည်။ | moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 mi3 htoon3 lite dthi2 -- Maung Ba goes ahead and lights up the candle without hesitation. (Maung Ba + subject marker + candle + fire/light + light up something for visibility + go ahead and do something without hesitation + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File

(CD) ည (၈)နာရီတိတိအချိန်၌ မီးပျက်သွားသည်။ ထိုအခါ မောင်ဘသည် ဖယောင်းတိုင်မီးထွန်းလိုက်သည်။ | nya1 shit na2-yi2 ti1-ti1 a-chain2 hnite mi3 pyet thwa3 dthi hto2 a-kha2 moun2 ba1 dthi2 pfa1-youn3-tine2 mi3 htoon3 lite dthi2 -- When the light goes out exactly 8 at night, Maung Ba goes ahead and lights up the candle without hesitation. (night + 8 + O'clock + exact + time + at + light + out of order + gone + ending ppm + when that happens + Maung Ba + subject marker + candle + fire/light + light up something for visibility + go ahead and do something without hesitation + ending ppm) MP3 Audio File