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Learn Myanmar Language in conversational and literary form. Learn to speak and read Burmese. The Free Online Colloquial Burmese (Myanmar language) lessons include Burmese script, MP3 audio, PDF files and easy Burmese grammar study materials with color-coded parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions, particles, postpositional markers, and interjections.

Naing Tinnyuntpu Naing Tinnyuntpu is no stranger to systematic and efficient approach. He came from manufacturing environment with Bachelor's and Master's degree in Industrial Engineering (USA). His contributions to semiconductor industry include Administrative Quality Best Practices during his working years as a process engineer with Hewlett-Packard in Singapore. Born and raised in Yangon, he has lived in 6 countries and exposed to different cultures and knowledgeable in unrelated areas. This includes self-taught programming languages. Currently, he is contributing to Tourism in Myanmar by making his online Burmese lessons freely available and accessible to all.





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TONE REFERENCE TABLE
Audio Pronunciation
Ah1 "a" in "art" with silent "rt"
Ah2 "ar" in "Argentina" with silent "r"
Ah3 "ar" in "Artist" with slilent "r"
De1 "de" in "deep" with silent "p"
De2 "de" as in "demote"; "demand"
De3 "dee" as in "deer"; "decent"
Ko1 "colt" with silent "lt"
Ko2 as in "co-author"; "cocaine"
Ko3 "cold" wit silent "ld"
Yu1 "u" in "Youth" with silent "th"
Yu2 "u" as in "university"; "utensil"
Yu3 "u" as in "user"; "Unix"
Shan1 as in "shunt" with silent "t"
Shan2 "shun" as in "chandelier"
Shan3 as in "shun"
Au1 as in "auction"
Au2 as in "Australia";"auditor"
Au3 as in "August"
May1 "maize" with silent "ze"
May2 "may" as in "May I?"
May3 "ay" in "amazing"
Sin1 "sink" with silent "k"
Sin2 "sin" as in "sincerely"
Sin3 "sin" as in "sinful"; "Singapore"
Un1 "aunt" with silent "t"
Un2 "un" in "understanding"; "umbrella"
Un3 "un" as in "under"
Meare1 "melt" with silent "lt"
Meare2 "mel" in "Melbourne" with silent "l"
Meare3 "mare" of "nightmare"
Tain1 "taint" with silent "t"
Tain2 "tain" as in "Captain"
Tain3 "tain" as in "maintain"
Bine1 "Bryant" without "r"
Bine2 as in "carbine"
Bine3 as in "combine"
Dome1 as in "don't"
Dome2 close to "dominate"
Dome3 as in "dome"
Toon1 "doont" in "couldn't"
Toon2 "mon" in "monastery"
Toon3 "oon" as in "cartoon"
Koun1 "count" with silent "t"
Koun2 "coun" in "counter-strike"
Koun3 "coun" as in "counsel"
ate cake, jade, eight, paid, bake
et wet, set, mad, yet
oot cook, put, look
out out, south, mouse, doubt
ike/ite sight, pipe, night, dice, like
ut up, nut, sucks
oat oat, coat, goat, soak
it it, pit, sit

Lesson 60: Burmese Grammar made easy — part 2 — Noun++

In part 1 of the Burmese grammar series, we have seen how particles and postpositional markers play their roles in spoken phrases as well as in sentence structures of the written Burmese language. Most of the earlier discussions had to to with the verbs. We will now see how the particles and postpositional markers play their supporting roles for the nouns and pronouns. The 17 types of postpositional markers used as suffixes after the nouns and pronouns are called နာမ်ဝိဘတ် | nun2 wi1-but, MP3 Audio File and the 9 types of particles used as suffixes after the nouns and pronouns are known as နာမ်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 pyit-si3. MP3 Audio File Yes, 17 + 9 types or classifications, not 17 + 9 words. But, they don't have to be intimidating. If you master about 75 of such words, you will be as good as any college level educated Burmese in conversational as well as in literary Burmese. If you want to be a proficient writer in Burmese, you must practice using those in sentences. I will give some English examples first to give you a general idea as to what those are.

Learn Burmese Grammar

Students are listening to the teacher. -- If the word order in this sentence is to be re-arranged like in the Burmese sentence without adding any extra words, it will go like this: Students + are + the teacher + to + listening. Note that the preposition "to" before the noun "teacher" in English becomes the suffix word "to" after the noun "teacher" in Burmese. That suffix word after the noun is called postpositional marker after the noun နာမ်ဝိဘတ် | nun2 wi1-but.

နာမ်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 pyit-si3 or suffix particles after the nouns do not belong to any one particular English grammar classification, so it's better to forget about English grammar for a while, and just observe how they are used in the Burmese language. Examples of equivalent English words are highlighted in yellow.

a pair of shoes -- numerical classifier
male student -- gender indicator
books -- plural maker
two each -- numerical modifier
approximately five -- numerical modifier
I haven't even read this book. -- noun-suffix support particle in relation to the verb
something like this -- comparison word
like the wind unseen -- poetic example
every town -- all inclusiveness word
Hey you! -- exclamation

So, that's the overview of this lesson. I will call those

Noun++

This page has learning resources for all levels. If you are a beginner or intermediate level, just focus on easy spoken phrases shown as [colloquial] and don't be discouraged. Unlike the Verbs++ in the previous lesson, majority of noun related particles and postpositional markers are used in literary forms. Longer sentences in literary forms are for advanced learners, academics, and researchers.

Nouns + Particles & Postpositional Markers - နာမ်၊ ပစ္စည်း၊ ဝိဘတ် | nun2, pyit-si3, wi1-but

§ 8. Nouns in Burmese grammar are classified by the four types of meaning or representation, or by the four types of constructions. Unless you are sitting for the College entrance exam, do not memorize the terms. Just browse through, observe the patterns, and take note that they are properly classified in the Burmese language.

§ 8.1.Classification of Nouns by meaning: အနက်အဓိပ္ပာယ် | a-net a-date-peare2 MP3 Audio File

  1. Individual or private names: တစ်ဦးဆိုင်နာမ် | ta1-u3-hsine2 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    ရန်ကုန် | yan2-gome2 -- Yangon MP3 Audio File
    ရွှေတိဂုံ | shway2-da1-gome2 -- Shwedagon MP3 Audio File
    အောင်ဆန်း | oun2-hsun3 -- Aung San MP3 Audio File

  2. Common terms: အများဆိုင်နာမ် | a-mya3-hsine2 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    မြို့ | myo1 -- city MP3 Audio File
    ဘုရား | pfa1-ya3 -- pagoda MP3 Audio File
    စာအုပ် | sa2-oat -- book MP3 Audio File

  3. Psychological or abstract noun: စိတ္တဇနာမ် | sate-ta1-za1 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    သတိ္တ | thut-ti1 -- courage MP3 Audio File
    သစ္စာ | thit-sa2 -- fidelity MP3 Audio File
    မေတ္တာ | myit-ta2 -- unconditional love MP3 Audio File

  4. Conglomeration: အစုပြနာမ် | a-su1-pya1 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    မိသားစု | mi1-tha3-zu1 -- family MP3 Audio File
    အစည်းအရုံး | a-si3-a-yone3 -- union MP3 Audio File
    အသင်း | a-thin3 -- club; team; association MP3 Audio File
    အဖွဲ့အစည်း | a-pfweare1-a-si3 -- organization MP3 Audio File

§ 8.2.Classification of Nouns by construction: ဖွဲ့စည်းတည်ဆောက်ပုံ | pfweare1-hsi3 ti2-hsout pone2 MP3 Audio File

  1. Original & indivisible: ပင်ကိုနာမ် | pin2-ko2 nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples;

    ကြက် | kjet -- chicken (monosyllable) MP3 Audio File
    ထမင်း | hta1-min3 -- uncooked rice (more than one syllable, but not divisible) MP3 Audio File
    စေတနာ | say2-da1-na2 -- good-will (Pali; indivisible) MP3 Audio File
    မန်နေဂျာ | mun2-nay2-ja2 -- manager (English loan word; indivisible in Burmese) MP3 Audio File

  2. Combinations: ပေါင်းစပ်နာမ် | poun3-sut nun2. MP3 Audio File Examples:

    စားသောက်ဆိုင် | sa3-thout hsine2 -- restaurant (eat + drink + shop) MP3 Audio File
    လက်စွပ် | let-soot -- finger ring (hand + to put on) MP3 Audio File
    လွယ်အိတ် | lweare2-ate -- shoulder bag (slung over the shoulder + bag) MP3 Audio File
    ကြက်ဆင် | kjet-hsin2 -- turkey (chicken + elephant) MP3 Audio File

  3. Verb modifications: ကြိယာနာမ် | kri1-ya2 nun2. MP3 Audio File How to recognize those?

    1. Use of prefix . Examples:

      အက | a-ka1 -- dance (noun), where က - to dance(verb). MP3 Audio File
      အမှု | a-hmu1 -- lawsuit (noun), where မှု - to regard as important (verb). MP3 Audio File
      အလုပ် | a-loat -- work; job; occupation (noun), where လုပ် - to do (verb). MP3 Audio File
      အတွဲ | a-tweare3 -- (boy & girl) couple; volume (noun), where တွဲ - attach (verb). MP3 Audio File
      အသည် | a-theare2 -- seller on-the-go (noun), where သည် - carry around (verb). MP3 Audio File

    2. Use of အ - အ pair which goes between the verbs. Examples:

      အကူအညီ | a-ku2-a-nyi2 -- help (noun), where ကူညီ | ku2-nyi2 -- to help (verb). MP3 Audio File
      အစားအသောက် | a-sa3-a-thout -- food (noun), where စားသောက် | sa3-thout -- to eat + to drink (verb). MP3 Audio File
      အစည်းအဝေး | a-si3-a-way3 -- meeting (noun), where စည်းဝေး | si3-way3 -- hold a meeting. MP3 Audio File
      အထူးအဆန်း | a-htu3 a-hsun3 -- something unusual (noun), where ထူးဆန်း | htu3-hsun3 -- be strange (verb). MP3 Audio File
      အပြောင်းအလဲ | a-pyoun3 a-leare3 -- change (noun), where ပြောင်းလဲ | pyoun3-leare3 -- to change (verb). MP3 Audio File
      အခေါ်အဝေါ် | a-khau2 a-wau2 -- term; expression (noun), where ခေါ်ဝေါ် | khau2-wau2 -- be called (verb). MP3 Audio File

      However, it should be noted that words with အ - အ pairs are not necessarily nouns especially if there is no recognizable verb. E.g., အသည်းအသန် | a-theare3 a-thun2 -- seriously (adverb).

    3. Use of suffix မှု | hmu1. MP3 Audio FileExamples:

      ကူညီမှု | ku2-nyi2-hmu1 -- help (noun).
      တီထွင်မှု | ti2-htwin2-hmu1 -- invention (noun).
      စိတ်ဝင်စားမှု | sate-win2-za3-hmu1 -- interest; mental absorption (noun).
      ဆုတ်ယုတ်မှု | soat-yoat-hmu1 -- deterioration (noun).
      ကြောင့်ကြမှု | kjoun1-kja1-hmu1 -- anxiety (noun).

    4. Use of suffix ခြင်း | chin3. MP3 Audio FileExamples:

      ရက်ရောခြင်း | yet-yau3 chin3 -- generosity (noun).
      ထူးချွန်ခြင်း | htu3-choon2 chin3 -- outstanding quality (noun).
      ကြင်နာခြင်း | kjin2-na2-chin3 -- compassion (noun).
      မျှတခြင်း | hmya1-ta1-chin3 -- fairness (noun).
      ငတ်မွတ်ခေါင်းပါးခြင်း | ngut-moot-khoun3-pa3 chin3 -- starvation (noun).

    5. Use of suffix ချက် | chet. MP3 Audio FileExamples:

      ရည်ရွယ်ချက် | yi2-yweare2 chet -- intention (noun)
      ကောက်နုတ်ချက် | kout-hnoat chet -- excerpt; extract (noun)
      ဆုံးဖြတ်ချက် | hsone3-pfyut chet -- decision (noun)
      စမ်းသပ်ချက် | sun3-thut chet -- experiment (noun)
      လိုလားချက် | lo2-la3 chet -- want; desire (noun)
      လိုအပ်ချက် | lo2-ut chet -- deficiency; requirement (noun)

    6. Use of suffix စရာ | sa1-ya2. Examples:

      စားစရာ | sa3 sa1-ya2 -- something to eat (noun) MP3 Audio File
      ချစ်စရာ | chit sa1-ya2 -- something or someone adorable (noun) MP3 Audio File
      ပျော်စရာ | pyau2 sa1-ya2 -- enjoyable activity (noun) MP3 Audio File
      ချီးကျူးစရာ | chi3-kju3 sa1-ya2 -- praiseworthy achievement (noun) MP3 Audio File
      ရယ်စရာ | yi2 sa1-ya2 -- something to be laughed at; laughable matter; a joke (noun) MP3 Audio File
      စဉ်းစားစရာ | sin3-sa3 sa1-ya2 -- something to think about (noun) MP3 Audio File
      သနားစရာ | tha1-na3 sa1-ya2 -- something deserving pity (noun) MP3 Audio File
      ရှက်စရာ | shet sa1-ya2 -- something shameful (noun) MP3 Audio File
      ရွံစရာ | yoon2 sa1-ya2 -- something disgusting (noun) MP3 Audio File


  4. Qualitative: ဂုဏ်ရည်ပြနာမ် | gome2-yay2-pya1 nun2 MP3 Audio File are quite similar to the verb modifications with the use of suffix အ၊ မှု၊ ခြင်း ချက် | ah1, hmu1, chin3, chet, except for that those are modified from adjectives. In addition, those words usually have words with opposite qualities or antonyms without the need for the negative prefix | ma1

    1. Use of prefix . Examples:

      အဟောင်း | a-houn3 -- something old (noun), where ဟောင်း - worn out (adjective).
      အသစ် | a-thit -- something new (noun), where သစ် - new (adjective).
      အချို | a-cho2 -- sweetness of taste (noun), where ချို - sweet (adjective).
      အခါး | a-kha3 -- bitterness of taste (noun), where ခါး - bitter (adjective).
      အဖြူ | a-pfyu2 -- white color (noun), where ဖြူ - white (adjective).
      အမည်း | a-meare3 -- black color (noun), where မည်း - black (adjective).

    2. Use of prefix မှု. Examples:

      ကောင်းမှု | koun3 hmu1 -- good deed (noun), where ကောင်း - good (adjective).

      မိုက်မဲမှု | mite-meare3 hmu1 -- stupidity (noun), where မိုက်မဲ - foolish (adjective).

      ရဲဝံ့မှု | yeare3-woon1 hmu1 -- bravery (noun), where ရဲဝံ့ - brave (adjective).

      သတ္တိကြောင်မှု | thut-ti1 kjoun2 hmu1 -- cowardice (noun), where သတ္တိကြောင် - cowardly (adjective).

      ပေါ့လျော့မှု | pau1-yau1 hmu1 -- negligence (noun), where ပေါ့လျော့ - inattentive (adjective).

    3. Use of prefix ခြင်း. Examples:

      လိမ္မာခြင်း | lain2-ma2 chin3 -- good manner (noun), where လိမ္မာ - polite and well-behaved (adjective).

      ရိုးသားခြင်း | yo3-tha3 chin3 -- honesty (noun), where ရိုးသား - honest (adjective).

      ဖြောင့်မတ်ခြင်း | pfyoun1-mut chin3 -- straightforwardness (noun), where ဖြောင့်မတ် - straightforward (adjective).

      ချိုသာခြင်း | cho2-tha3 chin3 -- pleasant disposition (noun), where ချိုသာ - sweet sounding (adjective).

      ပါးနပ်ခြင်း | pa3-nut chin3 -- shrewdness (noun), where ပါးနပ် - shrewd (adjective).

      မိုက်ရိုင်းခြင်း | mite-yine3 chin3 -- rudeness (noun), where မိုက်ရိုင်း - rude (adjective).

      ဆိုးဝါးခြင်း | hso3-wa3 chin3 -- bad condition (noun), where ဆိုးဝါး - bad (adjective).

      ညံ့ဖျင်းခြင်း | nyan1-pfyin3 chin3 -- poor performance (noun), where ညံ့ဖျင်း - lousy (adjective).

      ရိုးအခြင်း | yo3-ah1 chin3 -- naivety (noun), where ရိုးအ - naive (adjective).

      ယုတ်မာခြင်း | yoat-ma2 chin3 -- unethical behavior (noun), where ယုတ်မာ - despicable (adjective).

    4. Use of prefix ချက်. Examples:

      အားနည်းချက် | ah3-neare3 chet -- weakness; weak point (noun), where အားနည်း - weak (adjective).

      အားသာချက် | ah3-tha2 chet -- strength; strong point (noun), where အားသာ - strong; relatively stronger (adjective).

§ 9 လိင် | lain2 MP3 Audio File -- gender or sex classifications show whether the noun (living beings plants, nature, objects) or pronoun is male, female, unisex (gender neutral), or no gender.

  1. ပုလ္လိင် | pone3-lain2 MP3 Audio File -- Male. Examples:

    ဦးလေး | u3-lay3 -- Uncle
    ကျွန်တော် | kja1-nau2 -- I (male term).
    သူရကျော်စွာ | thu2-ra1 kjau2-zwa2 -- Thura Kyaw Swa (obvious male Burmese name)

  2. ဣတ္တိလ္လိင် | ate-hti1-lain2 MP3 Audio File -- Female. Examples:

    အမေ | a-may2 -- mother
    ကျွန်မ | kja1-ma1 -- I (female term)
    နန္ဒာလှိုင် | nun2-da2 hline2 -- Nundar Hlaing (obvious female Burmese name)

  3. ဒွိလိင် | dwi1-lain2 MP3 Audio File -- Unisex or gender neutral. Examples:

    အမျိုး | a-myo3 -- relative
    ကျွန်ုပ် | kja1-noat -- I (literary, unisex)
    ငါ | nga2 -- I (colloquial, unisex)
    နိုင်နိုင် | nine2 nine2 -- -- Naing Naing (can be either male or female Burmese nickname just like "Jordan", "Jessie", "Alexis", "Jamie", "Leslie", etc..)
    သရက်ပင် | tha1-yet pin2 -- mango tree
    မြွေ | mway2 -- snake. Unlike hens and cocks, some animals, reptiles, birds and insects are gender neutral.

  4. နပုလ္လိင် | na1-pone3 lain2 MP3 Audio File -- No gender. Nature, Universe, and man-made objects belong to this group. Examples:

    အိမ် | ain2 -- house
    ကြယ် | kjeare2 -- star
    ရေ | yay2 -- water
    မီး | mi3 -- fire

§ 10. The 17 classifications of postpositional markers (PPM) relating to the nouns known as နာမ်ဝိဘတ် | nun2 wi1-but are listed below. Those words are used as suffixes after nouns or pronouns. Note that some of those postpositional markers shown in the middle column can be used in more than one category.

Postpositional Markers after Nouns and Pronouns
# PPM Examples
1. သည် | dthi2
က | gah1
မှာ | hma2
ကတ္တားဝိဘတ် | kut-ta3 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows that the noun or pronoun in front is the subject. Example:

မောင်ဘသည် မြန်မာလူမျိုး ဖြစ်သည်။ | manu2-ba1 dthi2 myan2-ma2 lu2-myo3 pfyit dthi2 -- Maung Ba is a Burmese. (Maung Ba + subject is + Burmese + race + be + affirmation) [literary]

မောင်ဘက ခွေးကို လေချွန်ပြီး ခေါ်တယ်။ | maun2-ba1 gah1 khway3 go2 lay2-choon2 pyi3 khau2 deare2 -- Maung Ba whistles to call the dog. (Maung Ba + shows that "Maung Ba" is the subject who acts + dog + shows that "dog" is the object acted upon + whistle + conjunction "and" + call + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

(Use conjunction | yway1 and final word သည် | dthi2 for literary form.)

မောင်ဘမှာ ​ခွေးတစ်ကောင် ရှိတယ်။ | manu2-ba1 hma2 khway3 ta1-goun2 shi1 deare2 -- Maung Ba has a dog. (Maung Ba + equivalent to "has" that shows that "Maung Ba" is the subject + dog + 1 + numerical classifier for animals + exist + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File
2. ကို | go2
ကံဝိဘတ် | kun2 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows that the noun or pronoun in front is the object. Example:

သူ့ကိုသွားပြော။ | thu1 go2 thwa3 pyau3 -- Go and tell him. (him + to + go + tell) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File
3. မှ | hma1
က | gah1 (colloquial)
ထွက်ခွာရာပြဝိဘတ် | htwet-khwa2-ya2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows departure from. Example:

မန္တလေးမှလာသော မီးရထား | mun3-da1-lay3 hma1 la2 dthau3 mi3-yet-hta3 -- The train that comes from Mandalay (Mandalay + from + come + particle to modify "come" to adjective + train) [literary]

မန္တလေးက လာတယ်။ | mun3-da1-lay3 gah1 la2 deare2 -- (I) came from Mandalay. (Mandalay + from + come + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File
4. သို့ | dtho1
ကို | go2 (colloquial)
ရှေူးရှုရာပြဝိဘတ် | shay3-shu2-ya2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows direction towards. Example:

ဧရာဝတီမြစ်သည် မြောက်ဘက်မှ တောင်ဘက်သို့စီးဆင်းသည်။ | ay2-ya2-wa1-di2 myit dthi2 myout-bet hma1 toun2-bet dtho1 si3-hsin3 dthi2 -- Ayeyarwaddy River flows from North to South. (Ayeyarwaddy + River + subject is + North + direction + from + South + direction + to + flow + down + affirmation) [literary]
5. သို့ | dtho1
ထိ | hti1
အထိ | a-hti1
ထိအောင် | hti1-oun2
တိုင်အောင် | tine2-oun2
ဆိုက်ရောက်ရာပြဝိဘတ် | hsite-yout-ya2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows up to certain destination or time. Example:

ညနေ (၄) နာရီအထိပဲ လုပ်မယ်။ | nya1-nay2 lay3 na2-yi2 a-hti1 beare3 loat meare2 -- (We) will work only up to 4 in the evening. (evening + 4 O'clock + till + only + work + will) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File
6. ဖြင့် | pfyin1
နှင့် | hnin1
နဲ့ | neare1
အသုံးခံပြဝိဘတ် | a-thone3-khan2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows utility "with". Example:

ကတ်ကြေးနှင့် အဖတ်လေးကို ဖြတ်ပါ။ | kut-kjay3 hnin1 a-pfut-lay3 go2 pfyut ba2 -- Please cut this small piece with scissors. (scissors + with + substance + small + PPM that shows that the noun or pronoun in front is the object + cut + polite suggestion) [literary]

စန်းထွေးသည် မန္တလေးသို့ လေယာဉ်ဖြင့်သွားသည်။ | sun3-htway3 dthi2 mun3-da1-lay3 dtho1 lay2-yin2 pfyin1 thwa3 dthi1 -- Sun Htway goes to Mandalay by plane. (Sun Htway + subject "is" + Mandalay + to + plane + with + go + affirmation) [literary]
7. ကြောင့် | joun1
ဖြင့် | pfyin1
အကြောင်းပြဝိဘတ် | a-kjoun3-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the reason or cause. Example:

ဘာကြောင့်မသွားတာလဲ။ | ba2 joun1 ma1 thwa3 ta2 leare3 -- Why didn't you go? (what + reason + not + go + "modify verb into noun: not go due to this reason" + ?) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

ဝက်ထွားလည်း ငှက်ဖျားရောဂါဖြင့် ကွယ်လွန်သွားရှာပြီ။ | wet-htwa3 leare3 hnget-pfya3 yau3-ga2 pfyin1 kweare2-loon2 thwa3 sha2 byi2 -- What a pity that Wet Htwa has died from malaria as well. (Wet Htwa + also + malaria + with + passed away + has gone + tone of pity + has reached certain stage or condition) [literary]
8. အား | ah3 လက်ခံပြဝိဘတ် | let-khan2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that points to the receiver. Example:

ဆရာဝန်က ဆေးကို လူနာအားပေးသည်။ | sa1-ya2-woon2 gah1 hsay3 go2 lu2-na2 ah3 pay3 dthi2 -- Doctor gives medicine to the patient. (doctor + makes "doctor" the subject + medicine + makes "medicine" the object + patient + PPM to indicate receiver + give + affirmation) [literary]

Colloquial form omits this PPM with different word order:

ဆရာဝန်က လူနာကို ဆေးပေးတယ်။ | sa1-ya2-woon2 gah1 lu2-na2 go2 hsay3 pay3 deare2 (doctor + subject + patient + object + medicine + give + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File
9. | hnite
မှာ | hma2
တွင် | dwin2
ဝယ် | weare2
က | gah1
နေရာပြဝိဘတ် | nay2-ya2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows location. Examples:

ဒီမှာရပ်ပါ။ | de2 hma2 yut ba2 -- Please stop here. (this place + at + stop + polite request) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

ဝေဟင်ဝယ် လေယာဉ်သည် ငွေစင်ရော်လေး သကဲ့သို့ ဝဲပျံနေလေသည်။ | way2-hin2 weare2 lay2-yin2 dthi2 ngway2-zin2-yau2-lay3 dtha1-keare1-dhto1 weare3-pyan2 nay2 lay2 dhi2 -- The plane soars above and hovers in the sky just like a little silver gull. (sky + at + plane + subject "is" + little silver gull + as if + hover and fly + present participle + a sense of lonely sadness + affirmation) [poetic]

အိမ်ပေါ်က ထိုင်ခုံပါ ယူလာခဲ့။ | ain2-pau2 gah1 htine2-khone2 ba2 yu2 la2 kheare1 -- Bring along the chair from upstairs as well. (upper floor of the house + from + chair + also + bring along + emphasis to be sure) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File
10. | hnite
မှာ | hma2
တွင် | dwin2
ဝယ် | weare2
က | gah1
အချိန်ပြဝိဘတ် | a-chain2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows time equivalent to "in", "at", "on". Examples:

ည (၈) နာရီတွင် လေယာဉ် ဆိုက်ရောက်မည်။ | nya1 shit na2-yi2 dwin2 lay2-yin2 hsite yout myi2 -- Aircraft will land at 8 PM. (night + 8 + o'clock + at + plane + land + reach + affirmation) [literary]

ကျွန်တော်သည် ညဉ့်ဦးယံဝယ် ရုတ်တရက် ကြက်တွန်သံကြားရ၍ အလွန် အံ့အားသင့်သွားသည်။ | kja1-nau2 dthi2 nyin1-u3-yan2 weare2 yoat-ta1-yet kjet toon2 thun2 kja3 yah1 yway1 a-loon2 un1-ah3-thin1 thwa3 dthi2 -- I was very astonished to hear the crow of the cock just before the mid-night hours. (I + subject "am" + before mid-night + at + suddenly + cock + crow + sound + hear + get to + because + extremely + astonished + emphasis "gone to such state of mind" + affirmation) [literary, poetic]

မနေ့တုန်းက ဝယ်ထားတယ်။ | ma1-nay1 dome3 gah1 weare2 hta3 deare2 -- (I) have already bought it yesterday. (yesterday + indicate the time in the past + on + buy + keeping it till the present time + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

11. | e1
ရဲ့ | yeare1 (colloquial)
ပိုင်ဆိုင်ခြင်းဝိဘတ် | pine2-hsine2-chin3 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows possession. Examples:

မောင်ဘ၏ စာအုပ် | moun2-ba1 e1 sa2-oat -- Maung Ba's book (Maung Ba + 's + book) [literary]

အားလုံးရဲ့ တယ်လီနော | ah3-lone3 yeare1 teare2-li2-nau3 -- Everyone's Telenor (everyone + 's + Telenor) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File
12. အလိုက် | a-lite
အရ | a-yah1
အတိုင်း | a-tine3
အလျောက် | a-lyout
အားလျော်စွာ | ah3-lyau2-zwa2
လိုက်လျောပြဝိဘတ် | lite-lyau3-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows compliance. Examples:

စည်းကမ်းဖေါက်ဖျက်လျှင် ဥပဒေအရ အရေးယူခံရမည်။ | si3-kun3 pfout-pfyet hlyin2 u1-pa1-day2 a-yah1 a-yay3-yu2 khan2-yah1 myi2 -- Law-breaker will be taken action according to the law. (rule + break + if + law + according to + take action + be subjected to + get + future tense) [literary]

ပြောတဲ့စကား အတိုင်းသာလုပ်ပါ။ | pyau3 deare1 za1-ga3 a-tine3 dtha2 loat ba2 -- Just do what you were told. (say + particle to modify verb into adjective + word + in accordance with + just + do + polite persuasion) [colloquial]

The above is the colloquial phrase. Usually the noun za1-ga3 is omitted.

ပြောတဲ့အတိုင်းလုပ်ပါ။ | pyau3 deare1 a-tine3 loat ba2 -- Do as I say. [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

The adjective pyau3 deare1 refers to the noun za1-ga3 - word.

ရာသီအလျောက် ပန်းများဖူးပွင့်သည်။ | ya2-thi2 a-lyout pan3 mya3 pfu3 pwin1 dthi2 -- Flowers blossom in accordance with the season. (season + in accordance with + flower + plural + buds to blossom and bloom into flowers + affirmation) [literary]

ကံအားလျော်စွာ ကယ်ဆယ်သူများ အချိန်မီရောက်လာကြသည်။ | kun2 ah3-lyau2-zwa2 keare2-zeare2-thu2 mya3 a-chain2-hmi2 yout la2 ja1 dthi2 -- Fortunately, rescuers came in time. (luck + goes in favor + rescuer + plural + in time + arrive + come + plurality of the verb + affirmation) [literary]

13. နှင့် | hnin1
နှင့်အတူ | hnin1 a-tu2
နှင့်အညီ | hnin1 a-nyi2
နှင့်အမျှ | hnin1 a-hmya1
ယှဉ်တွဲပြဝိဘတ် | shin2-tweare3-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows accompaniment or corresponding relation. Examples:

မည်သူမဆို ကြိုးစားမှုနှင့်အမျှ အောင်မြင်နိုင်သည်။ | myi2-thu2 ma1-hso2 kjo3-za3-hmu1 hnin1 a-hmya1 oun2-myin2 nine2 dthi2 -- With deserving effort, it's possible for anyone to find success (whoever + no matter + effort + with equivalent + success + possible + affirmation) [literary]

ဘကြီးဖြိုးနှင့်အတူ အစ်မကြီးစိုးလည်း လိုက်ပါလာသေးသည်။ | ba1-ji3 Pfyo3 hnin1 a-tu2 a-ma1-ji3 So3 leare3 lite pa2 la2 thay3 dthi2 -- Big sister "Soe" also came along with elder Uncle "Pfyo". (elder uncle "Pfyo" + along with + big sister "Soe" + also + [follow + accompany + come] + still in addition to emphasize "also" + affirmation) [literary]

ကျွန်တော်တို့သည် ရန်ကုန်မြို့၌ သင်္ကြန်ကို မြန်မာ့ဓလေ့ထုံးစံ နှင့်အညီ ကျင်းပကြသည်။ | kja1-nau2 doh1 dthi2 yan2-gome2 myo1 hnite dtha1-jan2 go2 myan2-ma1 da1-lay1 htone3-sun2 hnin1 a-nyi2 kjin3-pa1 ja1 dthi2 -- We celebrate "Thingyan" water festival in Yangon in accordance with the traditional Myanmar culture. ([I + plural = we] + subject + Yangon + city + at + Thingyan water festival + object + Myanmar + tradition + custom + in accordance with + celebrate + plural + affirmation) [literary]
14. တွင် | dwin2
အနက် | a-net
အထဲမှ | a-hteare3-hma1
အထဲမှာ | a-hteare3-hma2
ခွဲထုတ်ရာပြဝိဘတ် | khweare3-htoat-ya2-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that separate out and highlight an item. Example:

အသားတွင် ဝက်၊ အသီးတွင် သရက်၊ အရွက်တွင် လက်ဖက် | a-tha3 dwin2 wet, a-thi3 dwin2 tha1-yet, a-ywet dwin2 la1-pfet -- When it comes to meat, pork is the best; similarly, mangoes in fruits, and pickled tea among leaves (meat + in + pork + fruits + in + mango + leaves + in + picked tea leaves) [traditional saying]

သတ္တုများအနက် သံမဏိသည် အမာဆုံးဖြစ်သည်။ | thut-tu1 mya3 a-net thun2-ma1-ni1 dthi2 a-ma2-zone3 pfyit dthi2 -- Steel is the hardest among all metals. (metal + plural "(s)" + among + steel + subject "is" + hardest + happened to be + affirmation) [literary]

နောက်ဆုံးအဆင့် အလှဆုံး ငါးယောက်အထဲမှ မေရတနာရူပ အား ရွေးချယ်ကြသည်။ | nout-hsone3 a-hsin1 a-hla1-zone3 nga3 yout a-hteare3-hma1 may-ya1-da1-na2 yu2-pa1 ah3 yway3-cheare2 ja1 dthi2 -- May Yadanar Yupa was chosen from the five most beautiful finalists. (final round + the most beautiful + 5 persons + from within + May Yadanar Yupa + PPM to indicate receiver + choose + plurality of the verb + affirmation) [literary]

သူတို့အထဲမှာ မေရတနာရူပ သည် အချောဆုံးဖြစ်သည်။ | thu2 doh1 a-hteare3-hma2 may2 ya1-da1-na2 yu2-pa1 dthi2 a-chau3-zone3 pfyit dthi2 -- May Yadanar Yupa is the prettiest among them. ([he/she + plural = they] + among + May Yadanar Yupa + subject "is" + prettiest + happened to be + affirmation) [literary]

15. ငှာ | hnga2
အလို့ငှာ | a-lo1-hnga2
ဖို့ | pfo1
အဖို့ | a-pfo1
အတွက် | a-twet
ရည်စူးချက်ပြဝိဘတ် | yay2-su3-chet-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the aim or dedication. Examples:

ဒုက္ခ ခပ်သိမ်း ပျောက်စေခြင်း အကျိုးငှာ နေ့စဉ် ဘုရားတရားနှင့်အညီ နေထိုင်ရ၏။ | doat-kha1 khut-thain3 pyout-say2-chin3 a-kjo3 hnga2 nay1-zin2 pfa1-ya3 ta1-ya3 hnin1 a-nyi2 nay2-htine2 yah1 e1 -- For the benefit of the cessation of all Dukkha(suffering), one must live in accordance with religion everyday. (Dukkha or the pain of life + all + cessation + benefit + for + daily + religious practice + conforming to + live + get to + affirmation) [literary]

သမီးဖို့ စားစရာ ဝယ်လာတယ်။ | tha1-mi3 pfo1 sa3-sa1-ya2 weare2 la2 deare2 -- Daughter, (I) bought something to eat for you. (daughter + for + something to eat + bought and brought back + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

သားအတွက်လည်း ပါတယ်။ | tha3 a-twet leare3 pa2 deare2 -- Son, I bought something for you, also. (son + for + also + include + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

16. တိုင်တိုင် | tine2-tine2
တိုင်အောင် | tine2-oun2
အထိ | a-hti1 (colloquial)
နေရာဆက်တိုက်ပြဝိဘတ် | nay2-ya2-zet-tite-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the continuous path to destination. Examples:

ဤကားသည် မှော်ဘီတိုင်အောင် ပြေးဆွဲသည်။ | e2 ka3 dthi2 hmau2-bi2 tine2-oun2 pyay3-hsweare3 dthi2 -- Service route of this vehicle reaches Hmobe. (this + vehicle + subject "is" + Hmobe + till + run service + affirmation) [literary]

ဒီကား မှော်ဘီအထိ သွားတယ်။ | de2 ka3 hmau2-bi2 a-hti1 thwa3 deare2 -- This bus goes till Hmobe. (this + bus + Hmobe + till + go + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

Hmobe, a town north of Downtown Yangon is the manufacturing hub for Coca Cola and Heinekan beer, as well as home to one of Myanmar's Information Technology Universities.
17. တိုင်တိုင် | tine2-tine2
တိုင်အောင် | tine2-oun2
ပတ်လုံး | pup-lone3
လုံးလုံး | lone3-lone3
အထိ | a-hti1 (colloquial)
အချိန်ဆက်တိုက်ပြဝိဘတ် | a-chain2-zet-tite-pya1 wi1-but MP3 Audio File - PPM that shows the continuity of time. Examples:

အုန်းဇာနီလှိုင်လှိုင်သည် သုံးနာရီတိုင်တိုင် အိမ်စာလုပ်သည်။ | ome3 za2-ni2 hline2-hline2 dthi2 thone3 na2-yi2 tine2-tine2 ain2-za2 loat dthi2 -- Ohn Zarni Hlaing Hlaing does the homework for three straight hours. (Ohn Zarni Hlaing Hlaing + subject "is" + 3 hours + up to + homework + does + affirmation) [literary]

ထားဒါလီနိုင်မောင်သည် (၅) နာရီတိုင်အောင် အလုပ်လုပ်သည်။ | hta3 da2-li2 nine2-moun2 dthi2 nga3 na2-yi2 tine2-oun2 a-loat loat dthi2 -- Hta Dali Naing Maung works until 5. (Hta Dali Naing Maung + subject "is" + 5 O'clock + till + work[noun] + work[verb] + affirmation) [colloquial]

ပြင်ဦးလွင်တွင် ပန်းများ တစ်နှစ်ပတ်လုံး ပွင့်သည်။ | pyin2-o2-lwin2 dwin2 pan3 mya3 ta1-hnit pup-lone3 pwin1 dthi2 -- Flowers bloom in Pyin Oo Lwin all year around. (Pyin Oo Lwin + at + flower + plural (s) + one year + all around + bloom + affirmation) [literary]

မပြုံးပြုံးသည် တစ်လလုံးလုံး ခွင့်ယူထားသည်။ | ma1 pyone3 pyone3 dthi2 ta1-la1 lone3-lone3 khwin1 yu2 hta3 dthi2 -- Ma Pyone Pyone has taken leave for one whole month. (Ma Pyone Pyone + subject "is" + one month + entirely up to + leave of absence + take + present continuous tense + affirmation) [literary]

§ 11. There are nine types of particles relating to nouns. Those are called နာမ်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 pyit-si3. Noun-related particles include measure words or numerical classifiers, gender indicators, plural makers, words after numbers to show approximation, frequency, or distribution, various support words to highlight the noun in a given situation, comparison words, exclamations, and words that describe all-inclusiveness. Those do not belong to a particular classification in English grammar.

§ 11.1 မျိုးပြပစ္စည်း | myo3-pya1 pyit-si3 -- Numerical Classifiers or measure words are the words that follow the numbers to show what types or things that the numbers refer to.

Examples:

တစ်ခန်း | ta1-khan3 -- one room
နှစ်ခု | hna1-khu1 -- two items
သုံးယောက် | thone3-yout -- three persons
လေးခွက် | lay3-khwet -- four cups or glasses

For more comprehensive list, see the table in lesson 12.

§ 11.2 လိင်ညွှန်းပစ္စည်း | lain2-hnyoon3 pyit-si3 -- gender indicators show if the noun refers to male or female. Most gender indicator particles appear as suffixes, but it is also possible to appear as prefixes such as in equivalent of "Mr" and "Ms" titles in front of names.

Examples:

ဆရာမ | hsa1-ya2-ma1 -- female teacher (omit ma1 for male teacher)
ကျောင်းသူ | kjoun3-thu2 -- female student
ကျောင်းသား | kjoun3-tha3 -- male student
ကြက်မ | kjet-ma1 -- hen
ကြက်ဖ | kjet-pfa1 -- cock
ဒေါ်မြအေး | dau2 mya1-ay3 -- Daw Mya Aye - adult female Burmese name and title
ဦးမြအေး | u3 mya1-ay3 -- U Mya Aye - adult male Burmese name and title
မောင်မြအေး | moun2 mya1-ay3 -- Maung Mya Aye - young male Burmese name and title
မမြအေး | ma1 mya1-ay3 -- Ma Mya Aye - female Burmese name and title
ကိုမြအေး | ko2 mya1-ay3 -- Ma Mya Aye - male Burmese name and title.

Burmese does not differentiate the pronoun "he" from "she". Both are သူ | thu2. Some authors who translate English novels into Burmese use သူမ | thu2-ma1 for "she", but the word does not catch on to the mainstream Burmese speakers.

See explanations and usages in lesson 4 on how to address people.

§ 11.3 ကိန်းညွှန်းပစ္စည်း | kain3-hnyoon3 pyit-si3 -- plural makers are attached to some nouns to indicate that there are many of the same type. The plural maker is also used to modify the pronoun "I" to "we", and "he/she" to "them". There are just a few to remember:

  1. လုပ်သားပြည်သူများခင်ဗျာ | loat-tha3 pyi2-thu2 mya3 kha1-mya2 --My fellow workers and citizens (worker + citizen + plural word used in literary form or in formal speeches + polite addressing word by male) [formal; spoken] MP3 Audio File

    This form of addressing to the people is equivalent to: "My fellow Americans" by the president in the US.

  2. ငါတို့လည်းလိုက်မယ်ဟေ့။ | nga2 doh1 leare3 lite meare2 hay1 -- Hey, we are coming along, too! ([I + plural = we] + also + come along + will + equivalent of "Hey") [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

  3. ပန်းတွေလှတယ်တော့ | pan3 dway2 hla1 deare2 tau1 -- Beautiful flowers! (flower + plural + beautiful + affirmation + female exclamation word) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

    Refer to lesson 32 for details of usages on singular and plural terms.

§ 11.4 သင်္ချာလေးနက်ပစ္စည်း | thin2-cha2 lay3-net pyit-si3 -- numerical modifiers are used after numbers to show approximation, frequency, or distribution. Examples:

  1. တစ်ယောက် တစ်ခုစီယူပါ။ | ta1-yout ta1-khu1 si2 yu2 ba2 -- Each person, please take one each. (one + person + one + item + each + take + polite suggestion) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

  2. မင်္ဂလာအခမ်းအနားသို့ လူအယောက် (၃၀) ခန့် လာသည်။ | min2-ga1-la2 a-khan3-a-na3 dtho1 lu2 a-yout thone3-hseare2 khan1 la2 dthi2 -- Approximately 30 people came to the wedding ceremony. (wedding ceremony + to + people + 30 persons + approximately + come + affirmation)

  3. ဒီဆေးကို မနက်တစ်ကြိမ် ညတစ်ကြိမ် သောက်ပါ။ | de2 hsay3 go2 ma1-net ta1 jain2 nya1 ta1 jain2 thout ba2 -- Take this pill once in the morning, and once at night. (this + medicine + shows the object + morning + one + time + night + one + time + drink +polite suggestion) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

  4. ၅နှစ်မြောက် ကုမ္ပဏီဖွင့်ပွဲ ကို Sedona Hotel ၌ ကျင်းပသည်။ | nga2-hnit myout kone2-pa1-ni2 pfwin1 pweare3 go2 se2-do3-na3 ho2-teare2 hnite kjin3-pa1 dthi2 -- 5th year anniversary of opening of the company is celebrated at Sedona Hotel. (5 + year + suffix to form ordinal number + company + open + festive occasion + convert the opening clause to object + Sedona Hotel + at + celebrate + affirmation)

§ 11.5 နာမ်ထောက်ပစ္စည်း | nun2 htout pyit-si3 -- noun-suffix support particles are used to stress or highlight the noun in relation to the situation or to the verb in the sentence. Examples:

  1. ကိုပြာလောင်များလာရင် ဘယ်လောက်ကောင်း မလဲ | ko2-pya2-loun2 mya3 la2 yin2 beare2-lout koun3 ma1 leare3 -- Just imagine, how nice it would be if Ko Pyar Laung came. (Ko Pyar Laung + stress on the noun: "just imagine" + come + if + how much good + exclamation "will be") [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

    များ | mya3 is usually used to make the noun plural in literary and formal Burmese. In the above usage, it is the noun-suffix support particle that stresses the importance of the person, and imagine what the situation would be with this person around. It can be omitted and make the person called "Ko Pyar Laung" less important.

    Just like "How nice" is not a question in the above context, the usual ending question word မလဲ | ma1-leare3 is not used as a question word.

  2. မြန်မာများအနက် ဦးသန့်သာလျှင် ကမ္ဘာပေါ်မှာ ထင်ရှားသည်။ | myan2-ma2 mya3 a-net u3-thun1 tha2-hlyin2 ka1-ba2 pau2 hma2 htin2-sha3 dthi2 -- U Thant is the only distinguished Burmese in the world. (Burmese + plural + within + U Thant + stress on the noun: "only" + World + PPM equivalent to "in" + outstanding + be + ending affirmation) [literary]

    U Thant was the Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971 during the crucial time of Cuban Missile crisis and confrontation between the two Superpowers, namely United States and Soviet Union.

  3. အဝတ်တောင် မလဲရသေးဘူး။ | a-woot toun2 ma1 leare3 yah1 thay3 bu3 -- (I) haven't even change my clothes yet. (clothes + even + not + change + get to + yet + negative ending) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

  4. ကျွန်တော်ပါ လိုက်ခဲ့မယ်။ | kja1-nau2 ba2 lite kheare1 meare2 -- I am also coming along. (I [male term] + also + come along + definitely + will) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

  5. ကျွန်တော်လည်း လိုက်ချင်တယ်။ | kja1-nau2 leare3 lite chin2 deare2 -- I want to come along, too. (I [male term] + too + come along + want + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

  6. ကျွန်တော်သည် မုန့်ဟင်းခါးတော့ ကြိုက်သည်။ | kja1-nau2 dthi2 mone1-hin3-kha3 dau1 kjite dthi2 -- (I) like (XXXX) Mont-Hin-Kha (Burmese fish gravy rice noodle). (I [male term] + subject "is" + Mont-Hin-Kha + XXXX + like + affirmation) [literary]

    It's hard to translate XXXX into English. The whole sentence means that I am not too much fond of good food and or care about food, and whatever is fine with me, but I like Mont-Hin-Kha as an exception. The word describes my preference for Mont-Hin-Kha.

§ 11.6 ဥပမာပစ္စည်း | u1-pa-ma2 pyit-si3 -- comparison words use nouns in front as examples or illustrations equivalent to "such as", "like", "as if", "as though" and "similar to" in English. Those comparison words can be poetic sometimes. Examples:

  1. စစ်မှန်သောအချစ်သည် စကြဝဠာကဲ့သို့ အတိုင်းအတာ မရှိပေ။ | sit-hmun2-dthau3 a-chit dthi2 set-kja2-wa2-la2 keare1-dtho1 a-tine3-a-ta2 ma1 shi1 pay2 -- True love is boundless, jut like the Universe. (genuine + true + adjective modifier + love + subject "is" + Universe + similar to + measurement + not + exist + literary ending declaration word) [literary]

  2. ရူပမာလာ၏ အဆင်းသည် ပန်းအလှနှယ် နမ်းမဝစရာပင် ဖြစ်သည်။ | yu2-pa1 ma2-la2 e1 a-hsin3 dthi2 pan3-a-hla1 hneare2 nun3 ma1 wa1 sa1-ya2 pin2 pfyit dthi2 -- The figure of Yupa Mar Lar is like the beauty of the flower that one cannot even satiate from kissing and inhaling (Yupa Mar Lar + 's + appearance + subject "is" + flower + beauty + as if + kiss + not + satiate + noun modifier + even to that level + be + affirmation) [literary]

  3. ယနေ့ အင်တာနက်လိုင်းသည် နှစ်ပိဿာခွဲရှိသော ကြက်လို လေးနေသည်။ | ya1-nay1 in2-ta2-net line3 dthi2 hna1-pate-tha2 khweare3 shi1 dthau3 kjet lo2 lay3 nay2 dthi2 -- Internet line today is slow like a chicken weighing 2 and a half viss (approximately 9 lbs or 4kg). (today + Internet line + subject "is" + 2 viss + half + have + adjective modifier + chicken + like + heavy; slow; sluggish + present participle + affirmation) [literary]

§ 11.7 ရူပကပစ္စည်း | yu2-pa1-ka1 pyit-si3 -- -- metaphorical particles are similar to ဥပမာပစ္စည်း | u1-pa-ma2 pyit-si3 -- comparison words with the particle between two nouns used as comparison words. Example:

ကောင်းမှုတည်းဟူသော မျိုးစေ့ | koun3-hmu1 di3-hu2-dthau3 myo3-si1 -- A good deed comparable to a seed. (good deed + similar to + seed)

According to Buddhism, deeds either good or bad are like seeds that bear fruits in the future, just like the idea of reaping what one sows in the Bible.

§ 11.8 အာလုပ်ပစ္စည်း | ah2-loat pyit-si3 -- exclamations, also called အာမေဍိတ် | ah2-may2-date -- interjections. Examples:

  1. ဟယ် လှလိုက်တာ။ | heare2 hla1 lite da2 -- Wow, so pretty! MP3 Audio File

  2. ဟေ့ မင်းဘာအူကြောင်ကြောင် လုပ်တာလဲကွ။ | hay1 min3 ba2 u2-kjoun2-kjoun2 loat da2 leare3 kwa1 -- Hey, are you trying to be funny with me? (hey + you + what + confused and bewildered + does + modify the action into noun clause + ? + excited tone) MP3 Audio File

    Another translation: Hey, what are you doing? Are you trying to fool me?

  3. ရှင် | shin2 -- Single word interjection by female. MP3 Audio File

  4. ဗျာ | bya2 -- Single word interjection by male. MP3 Audio File

    See more details in lesson 4.

§ 11.9 ဝိစ္ဆာပစ္စည်း | wate-hsa2 pyit-si3 -- all inclusiveness words show that each and every of the noun is included and/or how common or how popular is regarding the verb in the sentence.

  1. ယာဉ်စည်းကမ်းကို လူတိုင်း လူတိုင်း လိုက်နာသင့်တယ်။ | yin2-si3-kun3 go2 lu2-dine3 lu2-dine3 lite-na2 thin1 deare2 -- Everyone should obey traffic laws. (traffic + regulations + to + human + every + human + every + observe and follow + should + affirmation) [colloquial] MP3 Audio File

  2. နိုင်ငံတကာမှာ အသုံးပြုသော နည်းပညာ | nine2-ngan2 da1-ga2 hma2 a-thone3-pyu2 dthau3 ni3 pyin2-nya2 -- technology that is being used in every country. (nation + every + at + use + adjective modifier + technology) [literary]

  3. အမြို့မြို့ အရွာရွာ | a myo1-myo1 a ywa2-ywa2 -- in every towns and villages. (prefix "each" + city + city + prefix "each" + village + village)

    All-inclusiveness in the above term is described by the prefix | ah1 for "each" follow by the doubling of the noun "town" or "village". There are only a few words formed with this format.

§ 12 Review of Noun++ That's all you need to know about the grammar of the Burmese nouns, noun related particles and postpositional markers to pass the college entrance exam in the Burmese language. Do you recognize the following words and know how to use those?

က၊ ကို၊ ကြောင့်၊ ခြင်း၊ ချက်၊ စရာ၊ ငှာ၊ တကာ၊ တိုင်တိုင်၊ တိုင်အောင်၊ တိုင်း၊ တွင်၊ ထိ၊ ထိအောင်၊ နဲ့၊ နှင့်၊ နှင့်အတူ၊ နှင့်အညီ၊ နှင့်အမျှ၊ ရဲ့၊ ပတ်လုံး၊ ဖို့၊ ဖြင့်၊ မှ၊ မှာ၊ မှု၊ လုံးလုံး၊ ဝယ်၊ သည်၊ သို့၊ (suffixes အ အ-အ)၊ အား၊ အလိုက်၊ အရ၊ အတိုင်း၊ အတွက်၊ အထိ၊ အထဲမှ၊ အထဲမှာ၊ အဖို့၊ အလို့ငှာ၊ အနက်၊ အလျောက်၊ အားလျော်စွာ၊ ၌၊ ၏၊ ခု၊ ယောက်၊ ခွက်၊ ကောင်၊ မောင်၊ မ၊ ဒေါ်၊ ဦး၊ များ၊ တို့၊ တွေ၊ စီ၊ ခန့်၊ ကြိမ်၊ မြောက်၊ သာလျှင်၊ တောင်၊ ပါ၊ လည်း၊ တော့၊ ကဲ့သို့၊ နှယ်၊ လို၊ တည်းဟူသော၊ ဟယ်၊ ဟေ့၊ ရှင်၊ ဗျာ။